Part 12 | History of Outagamie County, Wisconsin. Thomas Henry Ryan. Part 13 | Part 14

FRANK M. CHARLESWORTH, who has been engaged in business in Kaukauna for the past thirty years, is proprietor of one of the leading pharmacies of this city, and has also been prominently identified with public matters during a long period. Born at Omro, Wisconsin, in 1857, Mr. Charlesworth is a son of Samuel and Mary (Manley) Charlesworth, natives of England who came to Wisconsin in 1847. Samuel Charlesworth, who was a tailor by trade and a farmer by occupation, was one of the pioneers of Wisconsin, where for many years he was engaged in agricultural pursuits. His death occurred in 1864, while his widow survived him until 1910. Of their six children, Frank M., and G. H., a furniture dealer and undertaker of Omro, are the only survivors. Frank M. Charlesworth received his education in the public schools of Omro, after leaving which he engaged in the furniture business with his brother at that place. Later he purchased a half-interest in a drug business at Omro, but in 1881 sold out and came to Kaukauna, where he has carried on a business of his own ever since. Mr. Charlesworth was the first city clerk of Kaukauna, and later served as alderman several terms and as mayor during one term. He is a member of the lodge and chapter of Masonry, and is also connected with the Modern Woodmen and the Elks. In 1883, Mr. Charlesworth was married to Frances E. Walsh, of Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin, daughter of John and Catherine Walsh, early settlers of Wisconsin, and they have had two children, namely: Frank, who is attending the State University at Madison, where he is taking a course in civil engineering; and Guy, a graduate of the high school, who will enter the State University

JOSEPH J. McCARTY, deceased. In the death of Joseph J. McCarty, the city of Kaukauna, Wisconsin, lost an able and progressive business man, and one who was closely identified with civic affairs during a long period. He was born February 10, 1865, and as a young man learned the trade of blacksmith, for some years having a shop of his own on Lawe street, in addition to working for the Northwestern Railroad. .He closed his shop to become manager of the Kaukauna Electric Light plant, was later the owner of an ice business which he purchased from Luther Lindauer then engaged in traveling for a scraper company, and at the time of his death was engaged in the cement contracting business. His death occurred January 17, 1908. For some years Mr. McCarty served Kaukauna as a councilman, in 1896 was elected mayor of the city, and in 1908 was elected to the office of county treasurer of Outagamie county. Mr. McCarty was married February 15, 1887, to Annie Pfiffer, of Freedom, Wisconsin, daughter of Matthew and Gertrude (Kramer) Pfiffer, natives of Germany who came to Wisconsin about 1845 and were married here. Mr. Pfiffer was a farmer and veterinary surgeon. Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. McCarty, namely: Joseph; Alice; Margaret, a nurse at Trinity Hospital, Milwaukee; and Lottie, Ray, Stanley and Robert, residing at home. Mr. McCarty was connected with Holy Cross Catholic Church, to which his widow and children belong. He was a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Foresters and the Elks, in all of which he was very popular. Mr. McCarty was an excellent business man of versatile ability, and was successful in all of his ventures. As a public official he held the esteem of the community, and his home life was such as to win him the high regard of a wide circle of acquaintances. His son, Joseph, who is continuing the cement contracting business, has handled some large contracts, and in his work displays many of his father's characteristics. He employs about sixteen men, and the work is not confined to Kaukauna, some large contracts being handled throughout the county. He is a faithful member of Holy Cross Catholic Church. and is also connected with the Knights of Columbus.

DENNIS McCARTY, who for thirty-five years was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Kaukauna township, was one of the early residents and honored citizens of this place, and in his death this section lost one more of its sturdy pioneer farmers who did so much towards building up and developing Outagamie county and its interests. Dennis McCarty was a native of Ireland, the country which has given us so many energetic and reliable citizens, and came to the United States with his father at the age of twelve years, the family locating first in New York. He was married in that State to Margaret Tobin, also a native of the Emerald Isle, and in 1854 they came to Wisconsin, locating first at Maple Grove, and later moving to Green Bay, where they resided for several years. In 1862 Mr. McCarty came to Kaukauna, Wisconsin, by ox-team, and purchasing an undeveloped farm, resided there thirty-five years and built up a large homestead and well cultivated property. During his latter years he retired from activities, and after 18 years of quiet life, he passed away February 4, 1910. He and his wife, who is also deceased, were the parents of the following children: Mary, Daniel and Charles, who are deceased, the latter being a prominent attorney and at one time the largest grower of pineapples in the world; Ellen, widow of Asia Minor Baldwin and resides in Arizona; Margaret, who married Barney Corcoran, a resident of Kaukauna and has a family of eleven children; Florin John, who married Susan Brennen; Joseph, deceased; Catherine, residing in Arizona; Thomas, who lives in Portland, Oregon; Anna, who married L. B. Glenn, of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin; Richard, who married Anna B. Merkle, of Grand Chute; Charlotte, who married John Flanagan, of Tomahawk, Wisconsin; Mary; and one child that died in infancy. The family is connected with the Holy Cross Catholic Church.

DR. RICHMOND KERR, a well known veterinary surgeon of Kaukauna, Wisconsin, was born near Ottawa, Canada, in County Ottawa, and is a son of William and Jane (Studdards) Kerr, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of Canada, in which latter country both died, Mr. Kerr having been engaged in farming all of his life. Richmond Kerr was the ninth in order of birth of the twelve children born to his parents, and he received his education in the Canadian public schools. He graduated from the Toronto Veterinary College in 1893, and then went to Chicago, graduating from the veterinary college there in the spring of 1894, after which he came to Kaukauna, where he has since been engaged in practice. Dr. Kerr was married in 1877, to Anna Pink, of Ottawa, Canada, daughter of Charles and Agnes (Semple) Pink, and they have had a family of seven children, two of whom, a son and daughter being deceased. The survivors are: Gertrude, who married Arthur Tate and resides in Kaukauna; Bertha, who lives at home with her parents; Margaret, who is engaged in school teaching; and Julia and Bernice, who live at home. The family is connected with the Methodist Church. Dr. Kerr is a member of the Foresters and the National Fraternal League.

A. KRESSIN, superintendent of the sulphide mill for the Kimberly- Clark Company at Kimberly, Wisconsin, has had a wide and varied experience in his line of work, and is well known among the paper manufacturers of Northern Wisconsin. He is a native of Germany, born December 25, 1860, a son of Herman and Caroline (Dumpke) Kressin, natives of the Fatherland, who brought their family to the United States in 1871 and settled in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, moving to Outagamie county four years later. Herman Kressin purchased farming land in Freedom township, and there he was engaged in agricultural pursuits up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1910. His widow, who survives him, still makes her home on the old farm. They had a family of five sons and one daughter, and all are living except one. A. Kressin spent his boyhood on the home farm, attending the district schools and working for his father, and in 1892 began working for the Kimberly-Clark Company, at Kimberly, to which place he removed. As a young man he had learned the trade of millwright, and he first engaged with this large paper manufacturing concern in the capacity of repair man, doing special work until 1908, when he was advanced to the position of superintendent of the sulphide mill. Years of experience have given him a thorough knowledge of his work, and he is an expert in every line of work which comes under his superintendency. In 1884, Mr. Kressin was married to Margaret Ochsner, who was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, daughter of Fred Ochsner, who came to Freedom township, Outagamie county, at an early day and engaged in farming. Mr. Ochsner was an old soldier and Mrs. Margaret Kressin was the only child. Mr. and Mrs. Kressin have had four children: Arthur, who lives in Milwaukee; Emro; Elsie, living at home; and Zenaida. Mr. and Mrs. Kressin are consistent members of the Lutheran Church.

JOSEPH VERSTEGEN. One of the leading industries of Little Chute, Wisconsin, is the Little Chute Lumber and Fuel Company, formerly the Miller Lumber Company. which was first established in Appleton about 1893 and bought in 1899 by Joseph Verstegen and Martin Hartjes. In 1906 Mr. Verstegen purchased his partner's interest in the business and in 1908 the firm was incorporated with Mr. Verstegen as president and treasurer; Annie Verstegen, vice-president; and Cornelius Van Gompel, secretary. The company handles a full line of lumber, wood, coal, cement, plaster, brick, lime and builders' supplies, and does the leading business in Little Chute. Joseph Verstegen was born in Little Chute, October 3, 1878, and is a son of Arnold and Katherina (Vandraa) Verstegen, the former born December 23, 1820, in Holland. Arnold Verstegen was married in 1844 to Mary Biemans, and in 1850 came to America, first engaging in farming on wild land in Little Chute, for which he paid $2.50 an acre, and later engaging in the flour mill business, which was his occupation at the time of his death in 1900. His first wife died in 1865 and he was married (second) in 1867, to Katherina Vandraa. By his first marriage he had these children: Katherine, Mrs. Martin Coonen, of Buchanan township; Mary, Mrs. John Hoyman of Freedom township; John E., a retired business man and city marshal of Little Chute; Herman J., president of the Little Chute bank; and Jane, Mrs. John Van der Weynelenberg, of Wrightstown. Mr. Verstegen had the following children by his second union: Dinah, Mrs. Martin Hartjes, of this village; Nellie, Mrs. Ed Johnson, of Deer Creek township; Joseph; Arnold, a farmer of Little Chute; Peter, also engaged in farming here; and Cornelius, a resident of this township. Mrs. Verstegen still survives her husband and makes her home at Wrightstown, Wisconsin.

Joseph Verstegen received his early education in the school of Little Chute, and until he was nineteen years of age worked at farming. He then engaged in the flour milling business and after leaving that worked at paper making until entering his present business. On February 10, 1903, Mr. Verstegen was married to Annie Van Gompel, daughter of Nicholas and Regina Van Gompel, pioneer agriculturists of Outagamie county now living retired, and six children have been born to this union: Lester, Clarence, Regina, Robert, Gerald and one that died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Verstegen are members of the Catholic Church, and he is connected with the Knights of Columbus and the Foresters. In 1910 Mr. Verstegen bought the remaining shares of his partners and became sole owner of the lumber business, etc. He also owns two dwellings in this town, the one in which he lives and the other which he rents.

JOHN E. VERSTEGEN, a prominent retired citizen of Little Chute, Wisconsin, who for seventeen years was engaged in the furniture business here, has also been closely identified with civic affairs of the village and a strong believer in Democratic principles. He was born in Outagamie county, August 26, 1856, a son of Arnold and Mary (Biemans) Verstegen. Arnold Verstegen was born in Holland in 1820, and at the age of thirty years came to the United States, settling at Little Chute, where he purchased a farm of wild land, at $2.50 an acre. This he operated until 1872. In 1862, in company with his brother John, he built a flour mill, and in 1863 the two brothers, Arnold and John, built the first bridge across the Fox River at this point, to accommodate their customers across the river from their mills. Later the bridge was conveyed to the township. The partnership continued until John Verstegen's death in 1870, when Arnold Verstegen became sole owner of the mills and continued as such until his death in 1900. His first wife died in 1865, and he was married (second) to Katherina Van der Ah, who survives him. By his first marriage, Mr. Verstegen had the following children: Katherine, who, married Martin Coonen and resides in Buchanan township and has ten children; Mary, who was married in 1874 to John Hooyman of Freedom township and has a family of ten children; John E. Verstegen subject of this sketch; Herman J., president of the Bank of Little Chute, who married Christina Whitman, and has a family of seven children; and Jane, who married John Van den Weymelenberg, proprietor of a department store at Wrightstown, Wisconsin, and has a family of eleven children. To the union of Arnold and Katherina (Von der Ah) Verstegen there were born children as follows: Frank, who is in the hardware business in Little Chute, married Annie Golden and has three children; Dinah, who married Martin Hartjes, has eight children, and is in business in Little Chute; Nellie, who married Ed Johnson, a farmer of Deer Creek township, has five children; Joseph, in the lumber business in Little Chute, married Annie Van Grumple, and has five children; Arnold, a farmer of Freedom township, married Rose Daul and has seven children; Peter, a farmer of Freedom township, married Mary Daul and has four children; and Cornelius, a resident of Little Chute, married Elsy Honey, and has two children.

John E. Verstegen received a. public school education, after which he spent twenty-three years in the flour mill at Little Chute. In 1893 he opened the first furniture store in the village, and continued to conduct it until his retirement, in March, 1909, since which time he has served in the capacity of village marshal. He was postmaster of the village during President Cleveland's administration, and has served several terms as assessor, and is a member of the high school board. With his family he attends the Catholic Church, and he is a. member of the Knights of Columbus, of which he has been trustee for many years, and of the Foresters. He was practically the organizer of Court 450 which now has a membership of 200 of which he held the three highest offices at different times. He is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. Mr. Verstegen was married July 20, 1880, to Mary Feldmier, who was born in Menasha., Wisconsin, August 4, 1857, daughter of John and Christina Feldmier, early residents of Calumet county, and nine children have been born to this union, as follows: John A., residing in Little Chute; Annie, who married H. Oudenhoven, a resident of North Dakota; Katie, who married John M. Stier, in the jewelry business at Beloit, Wisconsin; Emma, a clerk in Geenen's store at Appleton; Aloysius, residing on a farm; and Leda, one of the teachers in the high school at Little Chute; Leona, Edgar and Rosella, all living at home, attending school. Mr. Verstegen is a great believer in the value of an education, and has given his children the benefit of attendance at both parochial and high schools.

ALFRED G. KEUNE, proprietor of the Seymour Flour Mills of Seymour, Wisconsin, and one of the progressive business men of that city, was born January 13, 1871, in Centerville, Manitowoc county, Wisconsin, son of Charles and Caroline (Hacker) Keune, natives of Germany. Fred Keune, the grandfather of Alfred G., came from Germany to the United States after the death of his wife, who bore the maiden name of Bruns. He was a millwright by profession, and being an expert he traveled extensively as a stone dresser, drawing large wages. He was born in 1803 and died at the age of eighty-three years, having been the father of seven children: Gustav, Charles, Henry, August, Mrs. Minnie Duvenick and two daughters still living in Germany. Gustav was killed in 1862 while on skirmish duty during the Civil war. Charles Keune was about twenty-two years of age when he came to the United States in a sailing vessel that required nine weeks to make the passage, and on landing in this country had just enough money to carry him as far as Chicago, the rest of the journey to Manitowoc being made on money which he had secured by pawning a silver watch. He was a miller by trade, and soon found employment at what he then considered princely wages, and by working hard and saving his money was enabled in 1865 to erect a custom mill, with three run of stone, at Centerville, the capacity being thirty barrels. In 1886 this mill was enlarged and the roller system put in, increasing the capacity to sixty barrels, and in 1895 Mr. Keune turned this mill over to his sons, William, Gustave and Alfred G. Later Gustave sold his interest to another brother, August, and thus the firm remained until 1910. In the meantime, in 1897, the sons had built a new mill, with a capacity of 125 barrels. Charles Keune was married at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, to Caroline Hacker, daughter of John Hacker, who came to the United States in 1850, and whose other children were: Lena, who married a Mr. Kolpe; Mrs Luepke of Manitowoc and John and Charles. Charles Keune died in 1903 at the age of sixty-four years, and the death of his wife occurred in 1895, when she was fifty years old. Both were members of the German Lutheran Church, and had these children: Charles, Alfred G., Gustave, William, August, Emma, who married Allen Krause; Ida, who married Adolph Hoops; Elvina, who died at the age of twenty-two years, and Clara and Alma, who are single.

Alfred G. Keune came to Seymour in 1908 and purchased from John Bickert the Seymour Flour Mills, a three-story, steam-operated plant with a capacity of sixty barrels, and here he has continued to operate to the present time, manufacturing the well known "Daisy" and "World's Best Rye" brands. Mr. Keune was married in Manitowoc, in 1897, to Mary Mills, born March 4, 1875, daughter of John and Anna (Kassa) Mills, natives of Prussia, Germany, who are now residing at Centerville, Wisconsin. Mr. Mills, who is a veteran of the Civil War, having served with the Fifth Wisconsin Volunteers, Co. A, from 1862 to the close of the war, was one of the first chairman of the town board of Centerville. He and his wife had five children, namely: Albert, Paula, Ada, Olga and Mary, of whom Ada is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Keune are the parents of four children: Esther, Florence, Marion and Milton, all living at home. The family are attendants of the German Lutheran Church.

HON. JOHN UECKE, one of the representative citizens of Seymour, Wisconsin, who has developed a large business in the line of nursery gardening, has been prominently identified with public affairs during the past twenty years and has represented his district in the State Assembly. Mr. Uecke was born December 15, 1845, in Pomerania, Germany, a son of Gottlieb and Carolina (Runge) Uecke, natives of the Fatherland who started for the United States in 1852 with four children, namely: John, Emil, Albert and Gustave, of whom Emil, aged five years died in the United States, and Albert and Gustave, aged two years and five weeks respectively, died while the family was crossing the ocean on a sailing vessel. Gottlieb Uecke was a schoolteacher in Germany, and after arriving in this country took up that profession, in the meantime studying for the ministry. After due preparation he was admitted thereto and was ordained a preacher in the Moravian Church, filling pulpits at Lake Mills, Green Bay and Freedom, at which latter place he organized and built a church. He filled the last-named charge until his retirement from the ministry on account of advanced years, and his last days were spent near the home of his son, John, where he died in 1895, aged eighty years. His widow, who survives him, has attained the age of eighty-four. Six children were born to Rev. and Mrs. Uecke in the United States, namely: Emma, who married Rev. Madson; Augusta, who married a Mr. Scofield; Emily, who married a Mr. Dittner; Robert, of Harvard, Illinois; George, residing in Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Charles, who is deceased.

John Uecke was but seven years of age when the family came to the United States, and he received his education from his father and in the district schools. At the age of eighteen years he became a gardener and nurseryman and engaged in raising evergreen seedlings for Samuel Edwards of Lamoille, Bureau county, Illinois. This occupation he followed in Green Bay until 1871, in which year he came to his present place, situated just outside the corporation limits of Seymour, on the line between Seymour and Osborn townships, where he purchased ten acres of wild land and began gardening. He now has a well-cultivated tract, upon which stands a modern residence, flanked with well-kept lawns and surrounded by shade and ornamental trees. He has been successful in his various business ventures, is a director in the First National Bank of Seymour, and is looked upon as one of the substantial men of this section. In political matters, Mr. Uecke is a Republican, and he has filled various offices of public honor and trust. He was a member of the county board of supervisors for seven years, served as one of the first trustees of the Outagamie county asylum from 1890 to 1894, and during 1895-6 was sent by his fellow citizens to the State Assembly.

Mr. Uecke was married (first) to Hulda Schultz, who was born in Germany, and she died in 1901, aged fifty-eight years having been the mother of the following children: Charles, who resides at New London, Wisconsin; Rose, who married Fred Wagner of Mankato, Minnesota; William, residing at home; Albert, a real estate dealer of Cumberland, Wisconsin; Anna, who married John P. Coleman; Lizzie, who married Dr. Fuller; John, a resident of Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Fred and Eddie, twins, of Mankato, Minnesota; and Emma, who died in 1910, aged forty-two years, the wife of John Johnson, an engineer on the St. Paul railroad. Mr. Uecke's second marriage was to Nellie Eustis, who was born October 12, 1859, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, daughter of Samuel and Emily (Clark) Eustis, the former a native of Newton, Massachusetts, and the latter of New Hampshire. They were married in Boston, from whence they removed to the State of Maine and during the '40s came West to Minnesota, locating on 285 acres on the present site of the manufacturing center of Minneapolis, at which time there were but three houses in that city and nine in St. Paul. Mr. Eustis died in 1883, aged sixty-eight years, and his widow passed away in 1909, having reached the age of eighty-nine years and four months.

AUGUST JAHNKE, who is now living retired in Seymour, Wisconsin, was for forty years prior to 1911 engaged in agricultural pursuits in Kewaunee and Outagamie counties. His birth occurred April 20, 1851, in Pommern, Germany, and he is a son of August and Mary (Rush) Jahnke, who were born and married in the Fatherland and came to the United States in 1867, bringing with them their four children: Fred, Albertine, August and William. Mr. Jahnke's father settled in Kewaunee county, Wisconsin, on eighty acres of land in the woods, where he built a log cabin and log barn, and later replaced these with good, substantial frame buildings. Selling this property in 1880, he moved close to the shores of Lake Michigan, where he bought 160 acres of land, erected a modern house and other buildings, and continued to carry on agricultural pursuits up to the time of his death, in 1889, when he had reached the age of eighty years. Mrs. Jahnke passed away when seventy-nine years of age, in 1887.

August Jahnke, Sr., was much interested in the cause of education and it was in the first log schoolhouse of this section, erected by him and for which his sons helped haul the logs, that August Jahnke of this sketch was educated, but this primitive scoolhouse had since been replaced by a fine brick building. He remained at home, working on the farm, until he had attained the age of twenty-four years, at which time he began working on his own account, farming during the summer months and working on the drives during the winters, and spring being thus occupied for seven years. He then purchased 160 acres of wild land in Kewaunee county, on which was situated a log shanty and barn, but after he had improved and cultivated the property he built a large brick residence, and here he lived and followed general farming from 1873 to 1903, in which latter year he removed to Cicero township, Outagamie county and purchased an improved farm of 240 acres. Mr. Jahnke continued to carry on agricultural pursuits until the spring of 1911, when he retired from active pursuits and located in Seymour, where he has since resided.

On November 15, 1874, Mr. Jahnke was married to Miss Anstena Quad, who was born in Germany, January 6, 1856, daughter of Fred and Fredericka (Provgnou) Quad, natives of Germany who came to the United States in 1850, bringing their three children, William, Caroline and Anstena. Another child, Augusta, had died in Germany, and after coming to this country they had five children, namely: Herman, Frank and August, deceased, and twins who died in infancy. Fred Quad was an early settler of Kewaunee county, where he first located on forty acres of wild land, but before his death he was the owner of 200 acres of some of the finest land in the county. He died in the fine residence he had built to replace the original log structure, in 1890, aged sixty-eight years, while his widow survived until 1906, being eighty-three years old at the time of her death. Mr. and Mrs. Jahnke have had ten children, of whom four are living, namely: Bertha, born December 25, 1880, was married in 1899 to William Pautz and they live in Manitowoc county; Matilda, born January 1, 1882, was married to Henry Pautz and also lives in Manitowoc county; Albert, born October 11; 1888, married Irene Ehde and lives on the Jahnke homestead in Cicero township; and August, born August 24, 1891, is living at home with his father. The children who are deceased were: Amelia, Hulda, John, Edward, Anna and an infant.

In his political views Mr. Jahnke is a Republican, and while in Kewaunee county he served as chairman of the town board for two years, school clerk twelve years, and treasurer of the township of Montpelier one year. He was formerly secretary of the Kewaunee Fire Insurance Company, and is now a stockholder in the Seymour State Bank. Since March, 1911, he has conducted a garage in Seymour and also has three automobiles for livery purposes,

JOSEPH DAVID WERBELOWSKY. An example of what a man may accomplish through perseverance, industry and honesty, backed up by a natural-business ability and progressive ideas, may be found in the career of Joseph David Werbelowsky, proprietor of the Leader Store at Seymour, Wisconsin, who, starting in life with no advantages other than a determination to succeed, has worked his way to the front ranks of the substantial men, of his section. Mr. Werbelowsky is a native of Russia, born October 15, 1872, near the border line of Germany, a son of Jonas and Lena (Bauman) Werbelowsky, and a grandson of Moritz and Anna Werbelowsky, natives of Russia who spent their lives there, the father dying in 1888 and the mother in 1877. Moritz and Anna Werbelowsky were the parents of four children, namely: Jonas, Samuel, David and Anna. Jonas Werbelowsky began his business operations in Russia as a grain buyer, and this occupation he later followed in Germany, but in 1883 he came to America and settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, his family joining him soon thereafter. He began traveling from Milwaukee throughout that section with a Yankee peddling wagon and he so continued until his retirement. He now lives in Milwaukee at the age of sixty-two years, his wife being sixty years old, and both are stanch members of the Hebrew Church. Their children, of whom the first four were born in Russia, were as follows: Ida, who married M. Krome of Fifteenth and State streets, Milwaukee, where they own a large property; Julia, deceased, who was Mrs. Trexler of Milwaukee; Katie, who married Oscar Wrightman, a general merchant of Milwaukee; Joseph David; Louis, who is connected with a large wholesale dry goods establishment in Milwaukee; and an infant, deceased. The mother of these children was a daughter of Joseph and Hannah (Barzaner) Bauman, whose other children were: David and Jonas, residing in New York; Isaac, who died in Russia, and Sarah, who died in England, whence her husband had gone to become foreman in a Manchester woolen mill.

Joseph David Werbelowsky received his education in the German and Latin schools of Russia and Germany, and was thirteen years of age when he came to the United States. He has earned his own way in the world since that time, his first employment being in a mercantile establishment in Milwaukee, at a weekly wage of $2.50, out of which he paid his own board. Later he became a waiter in a restaurant at West Water street and Grand avenue, Milwaukee, for Peter Holtz, for whom he worked from 1890 until 1892, and in the latter year was taken sick with typhoid fever and incapacitated for work for a year. On recovering his health, Mr. Werbelowsky went on the road with a Yankee notion wagon and made numerous trips through the counties of Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac and Sheboygan, covering a period of twelve years, and in 1903 he located at Seymour and engaged in the mercantile business with his brother-in-law, Louis Feld, under the firm name of Werbelowsky & Feld. After two years Mr. Werbelowsky purchased his partner's interest and since that time he has conducted the business alone. This business, which was started in a small way in the Dean block, on Main street, has grown steadily from its inception, and has necessitated the use of more space in which to place one of the most complete lines of dry goods, clothing, hats, caps, boots, shoes, ladies' and gentlemen's furnishings and notions in the city, as well as a large and choice assortment of crockery and glassware. As the firm deals strictly on a cash basis, prices can be made that competitors find hard to meet, and this fact, combined with Mr. Werbelowsky's honest and courteous treatment of customers, has drawn him a large and steadily increasing trade. Mr. Werbelowsky is a progressive Republican, but he has never found time to spare from his business to aspire to positions of public preferment. He is a member of Des Peres Lodge No. 85, A. F. & A. M., of De Pere, Wis., the Odd Fellows, Rebeccas and Woodmen of America of Seymour, the Hebrew Order B'Nai Brith of Appleton, and the Hebrew Church.

In January, 1894, Mr. Werbelowsky was married to Sarah Feld, who was born July 10, 1873, in Russia, daughter of Isaac and Henda Feld, who died in that country. Mr. ana Mrs. Werbelowsky have had three children: Emil, Pearl and Jennie.

WILLIAM FARRELL, deceased, was a well known business man at Appleton, Wisconsin, for a number of years. He was born in Ireland, in 1845, and came to America with his mother, in 1854.

When he was only fourteen years of age the mother died and he was left to make his way alone, practically unaided and with but meager advantages of any kind. A large part of his life was devoted to lumbering, mainly in the Wisconsin lumber regions. He accumulated capital and in 1888 moved with his family to Appleton, where he embarked in a livery business. He continued in this enterprise until his accidental death, from the kick of one of his own horses, which occurred December 11, 1893. During the time that he lived at Phillips, Wisconsin, he was quite active in politics, being an intelligent man and good citizen. He was a member of St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church at the time of his death. In 1872 he married Miss Ellen Moran, who was born in Canada, a daughter of Patrick and Mary Moran, who came very early to Outagamie county. Eight children were born to this marriage, as follows: Mary, who is now deceased; Birdie, who resides at home, is a teacher of music, a graduate of Lawrence University and the Chicago Conservatory of Music and for several years organist of St. Mary's Catholic Church; John, James and Leo, all of whom are deceased; Margaret, who is a graduate of the Appleton High School and the Milwaukee Normal School, is a public school teacher; Katherine, who is a graduate of the High School and of Bushey Business College, is a competent stenographer; and Regina, who is yet in school. Mrs. Farrell and family attend St. Mary's Catholic Church.

JOHN SCHUMACHER, whose death occurred March 5, 1897, was for a long period engaged in carpenter work and contracting in Appleton, and was well known to the older residents of that city. He was born in Outagamie county, Wisconsin, December 15, 1850, and was a son of Peter and Anna Mary (Pauly) Schumacher, natives of the Fatherland who came to the United States shortly after marriage and became early residents of Outagamie county. Peter Schumacher was a farmer by occupation, and for many years was engaged in tilling the soil in Buchanan township, where both he and his wife died. John Schumacher received his education in the district schools of Outagamie county, and as a youth learned the carpenter trade, an occupation which he followed throughout his life, and during his later years was also engaged in contracting. He was the builder of many large structures in Appleton and the surrounding country, which stand as monuments to his skill in his chosen line of endeavor. On June 4, 1878, Mr. Schumacher was united in marriage with Miss Wilhelmina Dietzler, also a native of Outagamie county, and daughter of John Joseph and Magdaline (Anshaw) Dietzler, who came from Germany to Outagamie county in 1841 and became the first family to settle in Buchanan township. Always engaged in farming, the family resided on one property for sixty years, and Mrs. Dietzler died on this farm at the advanced age of eighty-seven years. Mr. and Mrs. Schumacher had a family of eight children, as follows: Amelia, who married Joseph Fischer and resides in the State of Texas; Magdaline, who married Henry Williams and lives in New Hampshire; Matilda, who married Daniel Kelly also a resident of the Granite State; Joseph, who is living in Little Chute, Wisconsin; and Susanna, Ella, Stevana and Edmond, living at home with their mother in Appleton.

ALFRED PYNN, who at the time of his death, March 25, 1903, was foreman at the Valley Iron Works, was born March 22, 1863, a son of George and Anna (Smith) Pynn, the former a native of Newfoundland and the latter of Canada, and both came to the United States with their parents. After marriage they located in Waukesha county, Wisconsin, and during the '60s moved to Outagamie county, George Pynn being occupied as a carpenter and millwright in Appleton up to the time of his death. He and his wife had a family of nine children, of whom two died in infancy, the others being: Alfred; Ida, who married Edward Wright and resides in San Bernardino, California; Hugh, whose home is in San Francisco, California; Emma, living at home with her mother; Irwin, who lives in Seattle, Washington; George, at home; and Laura, who is the widow of Edward Inman, of San Francisco. Alfred Pynn grew to manhood in Appleton, and after completing his education in the public schools became an employe of the Valley Iron Works, where his faithful service and conscientious attention to his duties earned him the position of foreman. He was married April 28, 1886, to Lena Nelson, daughter of L. and Katherine (Peterson) Nelson, natives of Denmark who came to Wisconsin about 1867 and located in Oshkosh, moving to Kaukauna in 1869 and buying a farm, on which Mr. Nelson still resides, his wife being deceased.Mr. and Mrs. Nelson had nine children: Anna, who married William Lansing of Appleton; Lena; William, living at Clintonville, Wisconsin; Hannah, who married Charles Downey; Mary, who married Verne Stevens of Illinois; John, of Cadott, Wisconsin; Frank, living in Oregon; Lawrence of Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Irwin, living on the old home farm. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Pynn: Vera, Lida, Mildred and Erma. The family is connected with the Congregational Church, of which Alfred Pynn was a consistent attendant. He was connected with the Odd Fellows and the Equitable Fraternal Union, in both of which he was very popular. Although he never engaged in political matters, he was keenly interested in local matters, and was always ready to do his share towards promoting the interests of his community.

THE NILE COMPANY, one of the large business enterprises of Appleton, Wisconsin, having two stores, located in the Seickman building at 742 College avenue, and in the Nile building, at 970 College avenue, has carried on operations here since 1907, when it was established by Joseph Gilman and William L. Gilman. Joseph Gilman was a contractor in Rhode Island, from which state he came to Appleton, after having engaged in much residence and mill work, he having built one of the largest mills in the world, of its kind. He has already retired from active business operation, but seeing the possibilities of a business enterprise such as the Nile Company, he interested William L. Gilman, an able business man and together they started what has since proved to be a great success. They both have continued to be identified with this company up to the present time. William L. Gilman has had considerable experience in the confectionery business and is an able manager for the two stores. The company now occupies the entire three floors and basement of the Sieckman building, a new and modern building 75x22 feet, and the manufacturing, which is in charge of George D. Gilman, is done in their own building at No. 970 College avenue, also an up-to-date building. A wholesale and retail business in ice cream and candy is carried on, three teams being used in the selling and delivering of 150 gallons of ice cream to the leading trade of Appleton. In addition a fine business lunch and afternoon lunch are served at the company's stores. Thirteen people are employed. Joseph Gilman was married to Adeline Blanchard of Canada, who died in 1905. There are the following children: George D., who is secretary of the company; William. L., who is general manager; Delia M., who married T. C. Robinson and resides at Columbus Ohio; Mrs. James McSoley, a resident of Boston, Massachusetts; and Mrs. Emmit D. Smith, a resident of Cincinnati, Ohio. George D. and William L. Gilman are both married and popular members of the Knights of Columbus. The family attends St. Mary's Catholic Church. The members of the firm are well known in business circles of Appleton, where all bear the highest reputations for integrity and probity.

GEORGE R. SCHAEFER, a prosperous farmer of Greenville township, Outagamie county, whose reputation as a judge of good livestock and as a breeder of high grade cattle extends throughout the State, was born January 28, 1874, in Clayton township, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, and is a son of Henry and Marie (Schmidt) Schaefer, natives of the city of Crevitz, Mecklenburg, Germany, where the father was born January 28, 1835, and the mother March 7, 1842. They were married in Neenah, Wisconsin, whence Henry Schaefer had come in 1855 with his sister and brother-in-law. He worked for his brother-in-law as a farm hand for a couple of years and then purchased a farm in Clayton township, about one mile distant from his brother-in-law's place, and until Mr. Schaefer's marriage they worked the two properties together. This land was very rough and wild when Mr. Schaefer settled on it but he developed it into an excellent farm and when he retired had one of the fine farms of his section. He died May 15, 1910, and his widow now resides in a house of her own with a daughter in Greenville township, the old homestead being operated by a son, R. J. Although never an aspirant for political honors, Henry Schaefer was held in such high esteem by his fellow citizens that he was elected to various positions of honor and trust. He and his wife were the parents of nine children: Dora, single and residing with her mother; William H., residing in Greenville township, on the old Schmidt homestead; Hattie, deceased; Henry C., deceased, was practicing law at Seattle, Washington, where he died June 21, 1893; Sophia, for several years a teacher in the Appleton schools; Helen, the wife of William Menning, a farmer of Greenville township; George R.; Rudolph J., who resides on the old homestead in Clayton township; and Ernest A., deceased. George R. Schafer attended the district schools near his home and the High school in Appleton, and until he was twenty-nine years of age was employed on his father's farm. At that time he bought the farm which he now operates, and to which he has made many improvements. He erected one of the first entirely concrete silos in the county, sixteen feet in diameter and forty feet in height. He carries on farming in a general way, but has specialized in raising full-blooded Holstein cattle, keeping a herd of about twenty-five head. He has been a breeder for twenty-five years, and his stock descends from that of his father which stood the tests for years and won numerous prizes in competitions held throughout the State for a long period. Mr. Schaefer is a director of the Fox River Valley Fair Association at Appleton and a member of all Holstein breeders' associations throughout the country. He is also a member of the Winnebago Cow Testing Association, an organization formed for the purpose of selecting the cattle that will yield the most profit to the farmer. He was secretary for eight years and at present is master of the State Grange. Socially, he is connected with the Equitable Fraternal Union, and in political matters he is an independent Democrat. On March 26, 1903, Mr. Schaefer was married to Ida M. Denkert, who was born in Clayton township, July 1, 1880, daughter of John and Mary (Evert) Denkert, born April 16, 1844, and April 8, 1850, respectively, in Mecklenburg, Germany. Mr. Denkert came to the United States when about sixteen years of age with his parents, who located at Manitowoc and after several years came to Grand Chute township, where he was married. Shortly thereafter he purchased a farm in Clayton township, and they still reside on the homestead, it being a well-cultivated, finely equipped property. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Denkert: Lena, the wife of Henry Schultz, residing in Clayton township; Ida M., wife of Mr. Schaefer; and John and William, residing on the homestead with their parents. Mr. and Mrs. Schaefer have had four children: Georgina Marie, born March 8, 1904; Henry D., born February 27, 1907; and John R. and James A., twins, born September 1, 1910.

ALBERT LUEBKE, a leading citizen and prosperous farmer of Freedom township, who is at present operating the old Luebke homestead, is treasurer of the Apple Creek Farmers Telephone Company. He is a, son of Carl Luebke, a native of Germany who came to the United States in 1866, as a young man, and settled in Milwaukee, where he resided for several years and then moved to Oshkosh, in which city he spent seven or eight years. He married Emilia Reinke, who came from Germany to the United States with her parents, and to this union there were born nine children. Albert Luebke was born December 14, 1868, in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and received his education in the schools of that place and the district schools of the country. As a lad he spent his time much as other farmers' boys of his day, spending his summers in work on the home farm and attending the district schools in the winter months, and later when he had finished his education his winters were put in as a laborer in the North woods. He so continued until June 15, 1890, when he was married to Anna Harp, daughter of Ernest Harp, of Freedom township, when he bought a farm from his father and built a new house as well as several barns, and moved to that place, which he continued to operate for ten years. At the end of this period he traded farms with his father and moved to the old homestead, where he has been successfully engaged in general farming to the present time. He is at present at breeder of registered Shropshire sheep, and is a mermber of the American Shropshire Registry Association at LaFayette, Indiana. Mr. Luebke has always been enterprising and progressive and ready to grasp an opportunity that promised to be profitable. For seventeen years he operated a threshing outfit amrong the farmers of his neighborhood, and he was one of the organizers of the Apple Creek Farmers Telephone Company, of which he is now treasurer and a director. He belongs to the German Lutheran Church of Freedom township, and has been a trustee and secretary of the church since 1902. Mr. and Mrs. Luebke have been the parents of thirteen children, of whom ten now survive, as follows: Ella, George, Lena, Lillie, Louis, Selma, Irvin, Esther, Erich and Walter.

OLIVER C. SMITH, secretary and treasurer of the O'Keefe-Orbison Engineering & Construction Company, one of the well known hydraulic, engineering and construction companies of the Middle West, was born near Flint, Michigan, December 12, 1866, and is a son of Charles L. and Helena (Dayton) Smith, natives of the State of Michigan. Charles L. Smith was a resident of Flint, and later of Saginaw, Michigan, where he was engaged in the real estate business, and is now deceased. His mother still survives and makes her home in Chicago, where a brother of Oliver C. Smith, George D., also resides. Oliver C. Smith received his preliminary education in the common and high schools of Flint, Michigan, at St. Johnsbury and at Burlington, Vermont, and later entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, from which he was graduated with the class of 1890, having taken a course in civil engineering. For seven months he was located at LaSalle, Illinois; and during the two years following he followed his profession in Chicago. In July, 1892, he came to Appleton and entered the employ of O'Keefe & Orbison, with whom he has since been connected. He was admitted a member of the firm in 1902, and is now acting in the capacity of secretary and treasurer. Mr. Smith was married in 1896 to Miss Louise Gregory Reilly, a native of Appleton, and they have had one child, Edith Katherine. In politics, Mr. Smith is an adherent of the principles of the Democratic party, although he has found his time too taken up with his business to engage actively in public matters.

GEORGE R. DOWNER, who has been one of Outagamie county's prominent citizens for many years, occupying positions of trust and responsibility and discharging his duties with uniform efficiency, is a native of Wisconsin, born July 1, 1851, in Lisbon township, Waukesha county, a son of William H. and Lucinda (Look) Downer. The Downer family is of German extraction and was founded in America by the great-grandfather, who settled in Oswego county, New York, the next generation being pioneers in Michigan. William H. Downer and wife were born in Oswego county, accompanied the family to Michigan, and later, with two children, settled in Lisbon township, Waukesha county, Wisconsin. There William H. Downer followed the carpenter trade until he moved on a farm in Dodge county, where his death occurred October 31, 1892, when aged almost seventy-three years. During the Civil War he served as a soldier in the Union Army and throughout life he was a patriotic and reliable citizen. His wife passed away December 7, 1885, in her fifty-ninth year. Of their six children there are two yet living: Silas T., who lives in Missouri; and George R.

George R. Downer spent the first eighteen years of his life on the home farm and in the meanwhile secured a good common school education. From the farm he then went to the lumber regions and spent eleven winters at cutting, logging and rafting, after which he went into contracting, to some extent, still later resuming agricultural activities on his farm of eighty acres situated in Seymour township, Outagamie county. In addition to being a good business man, Mr. Downer has been an intelligent, interested and broadminded citizen, and these qualities have led his fellow citizens to tender him many public offices. He was a member of the building committee that erected the Outagamie County Asylum for the Insane and was appointed its first superintendent in 1889, a position for which he was eminently qualified.

Mr. Downer was married September 18, 1877, to Miss Ida M. Brooks, who was born June 15, 1858, at Waterloo, Wisconsin, a daughter of Porter Matthew and Lydia (Streeter) Brooks, the former of whom was born in Monroe county, New York, and the latter in St. Lawrence county, New York. On both sides the families are of New England stock. Mrs. Downer was one of a family of nine children and one of the two survivors. To Mr. and Mrs. Downer two sons were born: William R. and Arthur George. Mrs. Downer is a member of the Congregational Church. Mr. Downer is identified with the Masons and the Odd Fellows, and both he and his wife belong to the Rebekah Lodge, the auxiliary branch of the latter order.

JOHN J. SHERMAN, cashier of the Citizens' National Bank, of Appleton, Wisconsin, a position of trust and responsibility which he has continuously held for nearly eighteen years, is also identified with other important business interests, and is one of the men of this city who may be truly termed representative. He is a native of Wisconsin, born in Addison township, Washington county, August 28, 1853, and nearly all of his life has been passed in this state. His parents were Jacob and Margaret (Sell) Sherman, the former a native of France and the latter of Germany. Men of the type of John J. Sherman have no need to recall illustrious ancestors to add prominence to themselves, but it is interesting to know that Grandfather Andrew Sherman served on the staff of the great Bonaparte from 1811 to 1815, and participated in those battles that made world history -- Leipsic, Dresden, Hanau, Bautzen, Lutzen and Waterloo. This veteran came to Wisconsin in 1855, where he lived a peaceful life for many years, his death occurring in 1880, when he was over ninety years of age. Jacob Sherman, son of Andrew, was born in 1819, and came to the United States when eighteen years of age. In 1845 he married Margaret Sell, who had accompanied a brother from Germany and reached America in 1839. She died October 4, 1855, the mother of six children, one of the three survivors being John J. Sherman, of Appleton. From the age of fifteen years John J. Sherman has been the arbiter of his own fortunes. He had three years of excellent school training in St. Gall's Academy, Milwaukee, but with this exception, provided for his further education and necessities himself, for some years teaching school in the winter seasons and attending school during a part of the summers. He thus advanced both financially and mentally, giving himself advantages in the Normal School at Whitewater and the State University, and for ten years engaging in educational work at Milwaukee. In 1879 he went to Wausau, where for seven years he was engaged in a mercantile business, and while there became active in politics and was elected city clerk on the Democratic ticket, was also census enumerator and was. otherwise prominent. In 1890 he assisted in the organization of the German-American Savings Bank of that city, which became a national bank in the following year. On April 4, 1893, he was elected county judge of Marathon county, and continued his judicial duties until he was called to Appleton, January 15, 1894, to accept his present position. Mr. Sherman was one of the organizers of the Wisconsin State Bankers' Association, in which he has always taken an active interest and of which he was vice-president in 1906 and president in 1907. In 1909, he was elected a member of the executive council of the American Bankers' Association. and has since continuously served in that capacity. Mr. Sherman was married (first) February 18, 1879, to Miss Mary E. Dengel, a native of Hartford, Wisconsin, who died December 20, 1886, the mother of two children: Adam Edward and Margaret. Margaret died in infancy. On May 1, 1888, Mr. Sherman was married a second time, to Miss Helen Kamps, a daughter of Gerhard and Katherina (Jansen) Kamps. Mr. and Mrs. Sherman have had six children: Margaret, Henry, Marie, Isabell, Helen and Agnes, all living excepting Henry, who died in infancy. They are members of the Roman Catholic Church, and Mr. Sherman is identified with the Roman Catholic Central Society, the Catholic Knights of Wisconsin, Knights of Columbus, Catholic Order of Foresters and the Catholic Family Protective Association of Wisconsin.

The Citizens National Bank of Appleton, Wisconsin, was organized on the 15th day of January, 1894. Although its authorized capital stock was $150,000, its first statement to the Comptroller of Currency showed assets of $75,000, while according to the bank statement at the close of business on the 7th day of March, 1911, showed a total of assets and resources of $1,298,021.33. Proportionately with the increase thus noted has the business of the various departments of the institution been augmented, and not a year since its opening, seventeen years ago, has this thriving financial institution experienced anything but a healthy progress. The original number of stockholders of this bank was 90; now it has been increased to 105, all residents of Appleton and Outagamie county, excepting a few who acquired stock by inheritance. Among the men who were numbered with the directors of the bank at the time of its opening and who are still connected with this institution in a similar capacity are: Lamar Olmstead, Joseph Rossmeissl, John Berg, G. T. Moeskes and John J. Sherman, and since its beginning the vice-president has been Joseph Rossmeissl, and the cashier John J. Sherman. From an office force of three men the activities of the bank have so increased that the services of eight people are now required to dispense the volume of business. The first president of the bank was John S. Van Northwick, who resigned as such officer on the 29th day of December, 1896, on which day Lamar Olmstead was elected as his successor, who has served continuously until the present. On August 1, 1907, the bank purchased the building it now occupies, together with an adjoining one. It was the first bank in the State of Wisconsin to put into use an absolutely fire and burglar-proof vault, the construction of which, being of solid steel throughout, was the heaviest made at that time by any safe company, and required the greater part of six months to complete the same. Inside this impregnable casing are located two combined screw-door safes used for the secure keeping of money and valuables. This institution was also the first of its kind in the city to introduce the home savings banks which have become so popular and are used by many families in this city.

CARLOS O. WHIPPLE, superintendent of the metal manufacturing concern of Carson, Rowell & Company, at Appleton, Wisconsin, was born at Menasha, Wisconsin, in 1854, and is a son of Charles and Mary (Walker) Whipple, natives of Vermont. The father was a graduate from two colleges, and became president of one at Chester, Vermont. He came to Wisconsin in 1847, and located first in Milwaukee, later removing to Menasha. Charles Whipple was the first schoolteacher in both of these cities, taught various schools in both places, and was county and state superintendent for many years, dying in 1879, while his wife passed away in 1896. Both were members of the Congregational Church, and Mr. Whipple was a Republican in politics. They had three children: Thomas L., who is connected with the Appleton Traction Company; Carlos O.; and Mary T., superintendent of kindergartens at Menasha. By a former marriage, Charles Whipple had a son, Frank, who is now deceased. After securing a public school education in Menasha, Carlos O. Whipple went to Chicago and took a technical course, and as a young man was employed in the factory of the Menasha Woodenware Company. He later became connected with the stave factory at Appleton, where he arose to the position of superintendent, and after nine years with this concern went to Minnesota, where he took charge of a fiber plant. He there invented and had patented several valuable processes for manufacturing vulcanized fiber ware. In 1902 the firm of Carson, Rowell & Company was organized by J. A. Carson, D. G. Rowell, A. J. Hawes and Mr. Whipple, and on October 13, 1905, the firm was incorporated by the same officers, with Mr. Hawes, president; J. A. Carson, vice-president and general manager; Mr. Rowell, secretary and treasurer, and Mr. Whipple, superintendent. This company manufactures crucible copper carbon metals, are the only manufacturers who make babbitt metal in the form of a round bar, and are the only manufacturers of crucible carbon babbitt metals in the United States. Their metals, through a special process owned by the company and invented by Mr. Whipple, are made with the idea of lasting longer, running cooler, showing a lower coefficient of friction and requiring less oil than any other known forms of babbitt metal, and this state of perfection has only been reached through years of experiment backed by trained knowledge in the art of metallurgy. The company does a business that aggregates on an average of $125,000 annually, the plant covers about a half-block and three skilled mechanics and a stenographer are employed. The product of this firm is disposed of principally to large jobbers, furnishing the babbitt metals for all of the United States Steel Company's mines, and marketing its goods in nearly every state in the Union. The metal is made in different grades, known as Marine, Special Genuine, Aurora, Niagara, National, Navy, Agricultural and Commercial Copper Carbon Metals, and also hardware metal, which the company guarantees as perfectly clean and thoroughly refined. The product of this company has been on the market for years, has been thoroughly tested on all kinds of machinery, and its excellence has been fully established by the satisfaction given to large consumers.

In September, 1880, Mr. Whipple was married to Agnes May Wilder, who was born in Vermont, stepdaughter of Daniel Jones, and they have had three children: Wilder, assistant superintendent of an electric plant at Seattle, Washington; George, a ranch owner of Tacoa, Washington, who died at the age of twenty-six years of typhoid fever; and Florence, who is attending school. Mr. Whipple is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen.

NELS NELSON, a well-known farmer and stock raiser of Cicero township, who owns 235 acres of fine farming land and was the first man to introduce thoroughbred Guernsey cattle in this township, was born January 23, 1863, in Denmark, and is a son of Nels and Uhonna (Franson or Hanson) Nelson. The father of our subject was a cooper by trade, and lost his life by drowning at the age of forty-eight years. His children were: James, of Maine township, Outagamie county; Nels; Hans, of Appleton; Anna, of Maine township; Ove Emil, a resident of Richmond, California; Frank Peter, of Milwaukee; and Sena, of Osborn township. Of these James was the first to come to America, was later followed by Hans, Anna coming third, Nels next, and Emil followed him, and finally Frank, Sena and Mrs. Nelson came together. Nels Nelson came to this country in 1886, settling in Appleton, near which city he worked on a farm for two years, and then located in Cicero township, buying a farm of eighty acres, which consisted of wild land and slashes. He built a log barn, which is still standing, and later purchased 155 acres of wild land, on which still stand the original house and barn, and he now has his entire property in a fine state of cultivation. On September 8, 1909, Mr. Nelson was married to Miss Luella Shepherd, who was born in Maine township, November 16, 1885, daughter of Henry and Margaret (Penwarden) Shepherd, early settlers of Maine township and to this union there has been born one child: Doris Irene, born March 5, 1910.

JULIUS E. HAHN, who is cultivating the old Hahn homestead in Center township, is one of the progressive, intelligent farmers of Outagamie county, and has been a lifelong resident of Wisconsin. He is a son of Rudwick Hahn, who came to the United States as a small boy, all alone, his parents having died in Germany, and after landing at New York, came to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he remained six years, working by the day. He then went to Dodge county, where he was employed by the month for sixteen years, and while there was married to Lena Krueger, daughter of John Krueger. In 1847 Mr. Hahn came to Center township and purchased a farm, and five years later bought the farm which is now being operated by Julius E. Hahn, and here continued to live until his death, February 14, 1911, one of the prominent agriculturists of Center township. Mr. Hahn was one of the self-made men of this section, having started out in life with no advantages, whether of a financial or educational nature, and through his own perseverance and energy worked his way to the front rank of successful men of his township. Mrs. Hahn died in 1881, having been the mother of four children.

Julius E. Hahn was born October 6, 1850, in Dodge county, Wisconsin, and was fifteen years old when he came to the farm on which he now resides. He received most of his education in the district schools of Dodge county, but also attended a few years in Center township, and he is possessed of an education far above the ordinary, his schooling having been added to by much reading and close observation. At the age of eighteen years he bought a farm in Center township, to which he moved, and there carried on operations for three years, but eventually returned to the home farm, of which he took charge, and here he has continued to reside to the present time. In 1872 he was married to Elizabeth Nieman, who was born June 30, 1855, in Buffalo, New York, daughter of Fred Nieman and Lena (Kliss) Hahn, the former a Civil War veteran who brought his family to Center township in 1867. Mr. and Mrs. Hahn have had five children, namely: Frieda A., born in 1874, who died in 1880; William, born in 1886, who died in 1897; Louis F., born in 1877, who married Anna Schultz and has three children; Mary, born in 1879, who married Charles Krueger; and Helen, born in 1885, who married Frank Schroeder and has two children. Mr. and Mrs. Hahn belong to St. Matthew's German Lutheran Church. In political matters he is independent.

LEWIS MENNING, who is the owner of the old Menning homestead farm in Greenville township, and secretary of the Twin Hickory Cheese Factory, a well-known business industry of this section, was born May 5, 1879, on the farm which he is now cultivating, and is a son of Christ and Sophia (Sough) Menning. Christ Menning was born in Germany and came to the United States when a young man, first locating in New York State for about ten years and then coming west to Wisconsin and settling in Greenville township, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until his retirement. He is now living on North Division street, Appleton. He became a well-known and successful farmer and was prominent in educational affairs in his township, serving for a number of years as a member of the school board. Lewis Menning was one of a family of three children and was educated in the district schools of this neighborhood, also spending three and one-half years in the Appleton schools. As a boy and young man he worked on the old homestead, and at the time of his father's retirement he took charge of the farm, renting it until 1911, when he became owner by purchase. He engages in general farming and dairy work, and has been successful in his ventures, having improved his property until it is one of the very valuable ones of this locality. He is also interested in the Twin Hickory Cheese Factory, and is at present secretary of this concern, which has a large output and the product of which meets with a ready sale in the Appleton markets. On April 29, 1908, Mr. Menning was married to Miss Ella Grutzmacher; daughter of Carl Grutzmacher, of Greenville township. She was born at Greenville, Wisconsin, and has been the mother of two children: Orrin, born April 13, 1909, died April 19, 1909, and Percy, born November 19, 1910.

WILLIAM RELEAN, born October 9, 1847, in Mechlenberg, Germany, is one of the most prosperous agriculturists of Dale township, where he owns 240 acres in sections 36 and 25. He is a son of Christian and Sophia (Schultz) Relean, who came to America in 1856, locating in Outagamie county, Wisconsin. Here they bought forty acres in Greenville township, building on it a log house, and later a log stable. To the original purchase, the father added until he owned nearly 200 acres at the time of his death, which occurred in 1896, when he was eighty-four years old. His wife died in 1888, aged seventy-four years. They had seven children, of whom William Relean was the second, and he and a brother, Fredrick, are the only survivors. When he was twenty-one years old, he commenced farming for himself on a portion of his present farm. To this property, comprising 160 acres, he gradually added until he now owns 240 acres, 200 acres of which is under cultivation. He carries on general farming and stock raising, marketing dairy products, hogs, cattle, sugar beets and potatoes. His preference is for graded Holstein and Durham cattle, of which he milks twenty-three, and he raises Poland China hogs. In 1895, Mr. Relean built his modern house, 44x44, with a wing, 16x30 feet, containing fourteen rooms. The barn, which is 50x128 feet, with a good basement, was built by him in 1892. His water is supplied by two drilled wells, pumped by windmills. On January 17, 1874, Mr. Relean married Regina Sieger, born July 1, 1856, second of five children born to her parents, Michael and Elizabeth Sieger, natives of Germany. These parents came to America in 1847, locating first near Milwaukee, but later coming to Winnebago county. In 1857 they bought land, which they sold in 1874, to come to Clayton township, the same county, and there they died, the father in the fall of 1894, aged seventy-four years, and the mother in 1904, aged about seventy-three years. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Relean, namely: Frederick, William and John, all of whom died in 1881 with diphtheria, aged three, five and six years; Paulina, wife of Everette Hackett, resides in the town of Greenville, where Mr. Hackett is employed in a cheese factory; Carl, unmarried, resides at home, being in the United States mail service; Alma, who died in childhood; Ella, unmarried, resides at home; and Elizabeth, also unmarried and residing at home. During the Civil War, Mr. Relean was not found lacking in patriotism, for he enlisted on March 14, 1865, in Company D, Twenty-second Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, being assigned to camp duty at Madison. He is now a member of Hortonville Post, G. A. R. In politics he is a Republican. He and his family are members of the Lutheran Church of Dale. Loyal as a soldier, Mr. Relean has been equally faithful as a private citizen, and his honesty and unflagging efforts have been rewarded by a gratifying prosperity.

HENRY J. OELKE, one of prosperous agriculturists of Outagamie county, now residing on the property once owned by his father, in section 23, Dale township, was born in Winnebago county, Wisconsin, June 24, 1879. He is a son of Julius and Matilda (Kleberg) Oelke, natives of Germany and Winnebago county, Wisconsin, respectively, who were married in the latter county and lived there until 1898, when removal was made to Outagamie county. Here the father purchased the farm now occupied by the son, and made it his home until his retirement in 1905. Since that year the father has lived in Dale, being now fifty-six years old, while his wife is fifty years of age. Henry J. Oelke was the second of three children born to his parents. He remained at home until his marriage, which occurred in 1906, when he was united with Miss Ella Schartau, born September 4, 1885, a daughter of William and Sophia Schartau, natives of Germany. They were married in Wisconsin, and are now living in Outagamie county, the father being seventy-three years old, and the mother sixty-four years of age. Mrs. Oelke was the seventh in a family of twelve children. Mr. and Mrs. Oelke are the parents of two children: Orla and Vora. Mr. Oelke purchased the homestead from his father, and owns 220 acres of rich land, mostly all under cultivation. He carries on general farming and stock raising, marketing dairy products, hogs, cattle, grain and potatoes, milking about twenty cows the year around. His preference is for graded Holstein and Duroc-Jersey hogs. His substantial barn is 40x92 feet, built in 1898 and kept up to modern requirements. The house was built in 1899, contains eleven rooms, closets and is fitted throughout with modern conveniences. There is another frame barn on the property, 98x36 feet, built in 1900, as well as numerous outbuildings for sheltering of stock, grain and machinery. In politics Mr. Oelke is a Republican. He and his wife are consistent members of the Lutheran Church. Having grown up amid healthy agricultural surroundings, Mr. Oelke understands his business in every detail, and has thus been enabled to carry it on profitably and creditably.

CHARLES PREISLER. Prominent among the agriculturists of Dale township, Outagamie county, may be mentioned Charles Preisler, who is operating a farm of 120 acres in sections 10 and 11. He is a native of Illinois, born July 19, 1858, a son of Charles and Mary A. (Meyers) Preisler, natives of Germany, who were married in the United States and first settled in Illinois, from whence they moved to Missouri, where Mr. Preisler died. The family came to Wisconsin in 1873, and settled in Ozaukee county, where Mrs. Preisler still lives, being seventy-two years of age. Charles Preisler was the second of his parents' eleven children, and after leaving home he began working at the mason trade, but later engaged in railroading. Eventually he turned his attention to farming, and rented a tract in section 15, Dale township, on which he lived about twenty-three years, after which he purchased the place he now owns, moving to it in the spring of 1909. On September 26, 1892, Mr. Preisler was married to Sophia Gmeiner, born November 15, 1860, daughter of Joseph and Mary (Hoffman) Gmeiner. Mrs. Preisler's parents were born in Germany, and after their marriage in Wisconsin settled in Dale township, where Mr. Gmeiner was engaged in farming until his removal to the village of Dale, where he died at the age of seventy-seven years. His widow survives, having attained the age of eighty-two years. Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Preisler: Anna, single and residing at home; Stephen, of Dale township, who is married and has one child; and Waldemer and Reuben, residing at home. Mr. Preisler is a Republican in politics, and he and his family attend the Lutheran Church. He has his farm in excellent condition, sixty-five acres being under cultivation, carries on general farming, and markets dairy products, hogs, cattle, grain, sugar beets and potatoes.

PLOGER BROTHERS. Prominent among the agriculturists of Seymour township, Outagamie county, may be mentioned the Ploger brothers, William F. and Henry F., farmers and stock raisers, who own 280 acres of valuable land situated in section 18. They are sons of William and Mary (Reiboldt) Ploger. The grandparents of the Ploger brothers were Frederick and Fredericka (Crouse) Ploeger, who came to the United States from Germany in 1856 with their family, consisting of August, who is now deceased; Ferdinand, Frederick and William. They settled in Greenville, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, where Frederick Ploeger died in 1875 at the age of seventy-nine years, and his wife in 1872, when seventy-two years old. William Ploeger was born in Germany, April 15, 1838, and during the Civil War enlisted in Company K, Second Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. On the army records his name was misspelled, becoming Ploger, and it has been so spelled by the family ever since. Mary (Reiboldt) Ploger was born January 17, 1845, at Mecklenburg, Germany, daughter of John and Christina (Nemann) Reiboldt, natives of Germany, who came to the United States in 1867, settling in Center, Outagamie county, where Mr. Rieboldt died in 1872, aged sixty-five years, and his widow in 1900, when seventy-four years of age. They had the following children: Mary, who married Mr. Ploger; Dorothea, who died aged twenty years; Christina, who married Fred Baker; John; Caroline, who married William Sittes; Fred, who died in Germany; Joachim; Fred (II.), who died in Germany; Christian, and Anna, who is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Ploger were married October 5, 1867, and came to Seymour township April 3, 1873, driven in by ox-team, to 160 acres of wild land on section 19. There was not a stick cut on the place, and their first task was to build a log cabin for their own protection and comfort and a temporary stable to shield their animals. They began clearing the land for crops, and as the boys grew up they did their share of the farm work, and now this property is one of the finest in Outagamie county. The log cabin has been replaced by a large eleven-room house, built sixteen years ago. In 1900 the big 40x98 feet barn was built; and in 1909 the wagon and tool shed, 36x50 feet, was erected. The tired, dusty team of oxen which brought the family to Seymour township were a poor means of locomotion as compared with the high-power five-passenger Buick automobile which is now the family means of conveyance. Mrs. Ploger was always a lover of her home, and she managed to keep her boys together throughout their youth and young manhood. William and Henry took charge of the farm in November, 1906, and here they have interested themselves particularly in the breeding of fine stock. They have the distinction of raising one of the finest teams in the country, valued at $1,000, being ot an exact weight, 1,710 pounds each, with their halters. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Ploger were as follows: Agnes, born July 24, 1868, who married John Johnson; Otto, born October 10, 1889, who died April 7, 1899; George, born September 27, 1872, who died June 17, 1892; Arnold, born September 24, 1874, who married Lizzie Green; Mary, born October 13, 1876, who lives at home with her brothers; Bertha, born February 20, 1879, who married Charles Shepherd; William F., born September 19, 1881; and Henry, born April 15, 1884. Neither William nor Henry have married.

WESLEY B. WILLIAMS. The average Wisconsin farmer, be he enterprising and energetic, is usually loath to transfer the control of his operations to other hands, even when he has reached an age that men in other lines of industry would consider advanced years, but when he finally does relinquish his hold on active labor and retires to his residence in the city, he makes one of the substantial, solid citizens of his new community, and as such is a welcome addition. Wesley B. Williams, a highly esteemed retired farmer of Bovina township, now living in Shiocton, Wisconsin, was born June 16, 1841, in Freedom, Portage county, Ohio, a son of Thomas G. and Eunice P. (Clark) Williams, natives of Ohio, in which state the mother died, the father coming to Wisconsin about 1868 and dying in Outagamie county. Wesley B. Williams secured his education in the public schools of Ohio, and attended Hiram College for three years, being a warm friend of its president, James A. Garfield, who was later to become president of the United States. He graduated from college at the age of twenty years and came west to Wisconsin, having stopped a short time in Illinois prior to locating at Eureka, Winnebago county. He became head sawyer in a sawmill at that place, where he rermained for several years, and then engaged in the lumber business, but eventually engaged in farming, purchasing eighty acres, on which was erected the first basement barn to be built in this community. Mr. Williams continued to farm with great success until 1907, when he retired, at this time being the owner of 800 acres of fine land in Bovina township. Since his retirement Mr. Williams has been living in Shiocton. On July 4, 1864, Mr. Williams was married to Caroline D. Tyler, who was born October 28, 1842, daughter of Nelson and Lydia (Sherman) Tyler, natives of New York State, who came to Wisconsin in 1859 and settled in Outagamie county, where both died. Mr. Tyler was an agriculturist all of his life. To Mr. and Mrs. Williams there were born seven children: Jennie P., who married A. J. Francis and died July 4, 1898, leaving no children; Wesley B., Jr., who married Lettie Van Alstine, has two children; two children who died in infancy; Earl J., who married Edith Kranzusch, has one child; Norman G.; and Maude E., who married Alvin Krause, of New London. Mr. Williams is a member of the Masonic order, and his political belief is that of the Republican party. Norman G. Williams received his education in the public schools of Shiocton and graduated from the Oshkosh State Normal school in 1898, after which he spent a year in Seattle, Washington, where for about six months he was engaged as a department manager in a department store. Returning to Shiocton in 1900, he purchased a one-half interest in the Boynton Nurseries, and three years later bought out his partner, since which time he has been sole owner of this large business, now known as the Shiocton Nurseries. He is also engaged in the meat market business with his brother, Earl J., also in the Christmas tree and decorating business, the firm shipping large numbers of trees and other evergreens during the holiday seasons. In 1902 Mr. Williams was married to Grace M. Boynton, who was born October 10, 1881, daughter of William G. and Frances (Manning) Boynton, natives of Outagamie county, who are now living at Gig Harbor, Washington. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Williams: Wayne J. and Earl B. Like his father, Mr. Williams is a Republican in politics.

FREEMAN 0. TOWN, president of the village board of Shiocton, Wisconsin, was born in Royalton, Waupaca county, Wisconsin. Mr. Town was married in 1904 to Miss Eva Demming, of New London, Wisconsin, and to this union there have been born two children: Josephine and Edna May.

ANSEL BAILEY BRIGGS was born at Lisbon, St. Lawrence county, New York, in 1829. He came west with his father in 1845, and settled near Waupun, Wisconsin. In 1849 Daniel W. Briggs, with his wife and two sons, Ansel Bailey, Robert, and his daughter Sarah, later Mrs. W. W. Willson, located in Appleton. Ansel Bailey Briggs assisted in erecting Lawrence College, and while attending that institution met Miss Ruth Kinney Millard, a classmate, whom he married in 1861. Four children were born to them: Daniel Judson, Charles Robert, Marion Josephine and Maude Millard. The first son, Daniel Judson, died in infancy. Ansel Bailey Briggs was a manufacturer of sash and doors, and was one of the first, if not the first, to export these products. He retired from business after his plant burned the second time in 1888. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and of the Masonic and Odd Fellow orders. His wife died in 1894. Charles Robert Briggs, his son, was married at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1891 to Mary Hyde Bell. They have two sons, Charles Robert, Jr., born in Decatur, Ill., in 1892, now a student of the College of Engineering at the University of Cincinnati, and a graduate of Howe School, Howe, Indiana; and Wallace Millard Briggs, born in Decatur, Illinois, in 1897. Charles R. Briggs lives in Marietta, Ohio, is in the sash and door business as salesman for John A. Gauger & Company, of Chicago, in Ohio, West Virginia and Virginia. He is a member of the Marietta Country Club, Masonic Club, Knights Templar and a vestryman of St. Luke's Episcopal Church of Marietta. Maude Millard Briggs, daughter of Ansel Bailey and Ruth Millard Briggs, was married in 1898 to Dr. William Henry Meeker, a prominent dentist of Appleton, and now practicing his profession in that city. They with Marion Josephine Briggs, live in the old home at 700 Lawrence street.

AUGUSTUS L. MURPHY, one of the leading business citizens of Hortonville, Wisconsin, who is secretary of the Farmers' Home Mutual Insurance Company, one of the largest organizations of its kind in the country, was born October 23, 1848, in Jefferson county, New York, the only surviving child of the eight born to Adam and Josephine P. (Vebber) Murphy. Adam Murphy was of Irish descent, and was left an orphan at an early age, being reared by a Holland family of the Mohawk Valley. Augustus L. Murphy received his education in the common schools. When twenty years of age he started out to make his own way in the world, and in the spring of 1869 arrived in Outagamie county, where he began working on a farm. During the winter of that year he met with an accident, cutting his foot severely with an axe, and in the spring of 1870 he gave up farming and entered a cheese factory in Greenville township, of which he eventually became the owner, operating it until 1897, when he rented it and came to Hortonville to become secretary of the insurance company. This large concern has $4,687,743 in risks, and its business dealings have been so satisfactory as to practically drive the old line -companies from the field. On taking the position he now holds Mr. Murphy introduced new business methods in the office, the system being now so perfected that at a moment's notice he can give a detailed account of all business transactions from the time he took up his duties to the present day. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, is secretary of the Equitable Fraternal Union No. 10, and is independent in politics. With his family he attends church. In 1872 Mr. Murphy was married to Matilda; Jack, daughter of Hiram and Mary (Hunter) Jack, the former born in New Brunswick in 1819, a son of a native of Maine of Irish descent, and Mrs. Jack a native of Scotland, who came to the United States at the age of two years. They were married in 1841 and came to Outagamie county thirteen years later, purchasing eighty acres of wild land in Greenville township, two miles east of Hortonville. During the first few years, when the wild land was being cleared, Hiram worked nights in a mill in Hortonville, walking to and fro from work, while his family was engaged in clearing the land. Mrs. Murphy can remember many interesting reminiscences of these early times and many of them have to deal with the hardships and privations endured by the early settlers, but she also remembers that the sufferings of the pioneers only brought them closer together and that the brotherly feeling existing between the families in those days was far beyond anything that has been brought by the growth and development of the country. What belonged to one family at that time was gladly shared, those who had cows distributing the milk among their less fortunate neighbors until the supply was gone, and those who butchered dividing readily their supply of fresh meat among those who had none. Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Murphy: Chester A., born in 1874, now employed in the paper mill at Rothschild, Wisconsin; Mrs. Maud Evans, of New York State; Charles E., married and living in Tacoma, Washington, where he is in the employ of an express company as local agent; and Mrs. Bessie Brown, of Santa Barbara, California.

FERDINAND W. GOSSE, farmer and stock raiser of Cicero township, whose fine farm of eighty acres, located in section 22, shows the skilled management of its operator, was born March 18, 1844, near Berlin, Germany, and is a son of Fred and Dorothea (Breitzk) Gosse, farming people of the. Fatherland. Mr. Gosse has two brothers, Charles and Frank, and a sister, Amelia. Fred Gosse died in Germany in 1854, and in 1871 the mother brought her family to the United States, settling in Ellington township, where Ferdinand W. Gosse worked in the lumber woods for three years, thereby earning enough money to invest in a piece of timber land in Cicero township, which he has since converted into his present excellent farm. In 1874 he built a log shanty, in which he lived alone for five months, and then married Rebecca Kittner, and the young couple began to make a comfortable home for themselves in the wild, uncultivated country. A new house was built, 16x22 feet, then a barn 36x70 feet was erected, and eventually a basement was put under the latter. When the farm had been put on a paying basis, Mr. Gosse decided he should have a better home, and subsequently he enlarged his residence to nine rooms and made it modern in every respect. Other buildings on this fine property are a substantial granary, a wagon shed 25x50 feet, a chicken house 14x22 feet, and a hog barn 30x56 feet, the latter built in 1910. In addition to engaging in a general line of farming, Mr. Gosse raises good cattle, hogs and horses, and is known to be an expert judge of live stock. The valuable property which he now owns has come to him as a result of years of industrious labor, and he takes pardonable pride in the fact that he is a successful self-made man. Mr. and Mrs. Gosse have had nine children: Anna, Lena, Ida, Bertha, Eddie, Wilma, Robert, Arnold and Stella, of whom Lena is deceased.

CHARLES H. MORY. In every community in Wisconsin are men who have risen above their fellows in business and political life, not because they have had better advantages, but because their natural abilities created opportunities of which they were quick to take advantage. In a section like Outagamie county, where good and reliable men are easily found, he who is given preferment among his fellows has indeed attained honor, for he has proven himself a person whom any man might trust. Charles H. Mory, farmer, stock raiser, land owner and prominent citizen of Cicero township for many years, who has spent his entire life within the confines of Outagamie county, where he has been identified with the growth and development of the community in which he lived, and who has been elected to several positions of honor and trust, was born January 27, 1854, in Greenville township, Outagamie county, son of Julius Francis and Fredericka (Wolfrum) Mory, who were born in Germany. Julius F. Mory came to the United States in 1849, settling in Greenville township, and purchased an eighty-acre farm, his wife and stepdaughter following him here in 1853. He continued to live on this property until 1876, when he died and was buried in the Ellington Cemetery. Mr. Mory was married to Fredericka Wolfrum, the widow of Carl Oschatz, a native of Germany who died in Milwaukee, and she died July 11, 1910, being buried in Appleton, where she removed in 1887. They had the following children: Mrs. Caroline Hilfert; Charles H.; Frank J.; Edward, of Appleton; Albert F., of San Antonio, Texas; and Mrs. Ida P. Nicklaus, of Appleton. Charles H. Mory received his education in the district schools in the vicinity of the homestead in Greenville township, and his boyhood was spent much the same as that of other farmers' youths of that day. On January 25, 1882, he was married to Miss Rosa Breitrick, who was born in Ellington, Wisconsin, August 19, 1857, daughter of Charles and Wilhelmina (Herman) Breitrick, natives of Saxony, Prussia. Charles Breitrick was educated in Germany, where he was reared on a farm, served three years in the German army, and came to the United States, where he settled in Milwaukee, and was there married. They then moved to Waupaca county, where Mr. Breitrick worked on a farm for eight months, then spent five years on a wild farm in Ellington, Wisconsin, and from that time until his death, April 23, 1891, he was engaged in farming in the township of Ellington. His wife died March 27, 1880, having been the mother of five children, namely: Albert; Minnie, who married F. E. Saecker, of Appleton; Rosa, who married Mr. Mory; Caroline, who married William Lohrenz, of Appleton; and Charles, the owner of the old homestead farm in Ellington township. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Mory made their home with Mr. Mory's parents for about two years, and then purchased the present home farm, which he has developed into one of the finest in Cicero township. When Mr. Mory first located on this property it was only partly cleared for cultivation, and the buildings consisted of a log house 16x28 feet and two log barns, 30x60 feet and 25x56 feet, respectively, in size. The old weatherbeaten log home has been replaced by a modern structure of eleven rooms and all conveniences; there is a basement barn, 36x70 feet, with 46x70 feet floor space, and the other buildings are substantial in build and of relatively corresponding size. In addition to carrying on general farming and raising large, prosperous crops, Mr. Mory engages in cattle raising, specializing in the Guernsey breed, and owning a registered thoroughbred sire. He and Mrs. Mory are members of the Evangelical Association in Cicero township, in which he served as Sunday School superintendent for a long period of years. In political matters he acts with the Republican party, of which he has always been an ardent supporter, and he has served as school director of district No. 2 for several years, and as town clerk for six years, from 1896 until 1902. Mr. and Mrs. Mory have had the following children: Lenora W., born June 19, 1883, married William Witthuhn and lives in Maine township; Esther J., born June 10, 1886, married Ernest Witthuhn and lives in Cicero township; Lillian A., born September 4, 1888; Clara C., born January 2, 1891; Leonard Franklin, born June 20, 1894; Carlton, born May 14, 1897, died at birth; Wilmer C., born December 25, 1899; and Alvin Julius, born March 25, 1901.

OTTO BRASS, junior member of the firm of Hahn & Company, of Cicero, Wisconsin, one of the well-known cheesemaking concerns of Outagamie county, was born September 27, 1868, in Sheboygan county, Wisconsin, a son of Cornelius and Fredericka (Strassberger) Brass. Mr. Brass' parents were born in Germany, from which country his father came to the United States at the age of twenty years, settling in Sheyboygan county, Wisconsin, where he met and married Fredericka Strassberger, who had come here with her parents when two years old. They at once settled down to agricultural pursuits, which Mr. Brass followed throughout his life, his death occurring in 1876. His widow, who survives him, is seventy-six years of age. They had nine children, as follows: Bertha, Herman, Julius, Otto, Lena, Emma, Gustave, Ida and Cornelius, of whom Ida is deceased, and Emma is the wife of Charles Hahn, Mr. Brass' business partner. Otto Brass received his education in the schools of Sheboygan county, and there learned the cheesemaking business, which he followed for two years before coming to Cicero, in 1894, to form a partnership with Mr. Hahn, his brother-in-law. They now have a business which has increased its output from 3,000 pounds to from 12,000 to 15,000 pounds daily, do a large business in cream, and also have a farm of 200 acres under cultivation. Their first store, a structure 24x30 feet, was erected in 1895, but the business has increased to such an extent that numerous additions have been made and other buildings built to accommodate the large trade now handled by the partners. Their farm is equipped with fine, substantial buildings, and the partners are known as excellent farlmers and substantial, reliable business men. Mr. Brass was married December 8, 1895, in Outagamie county, to Edith Keilem, who was born in Eau Claire county, Wisconsin, May 21, 1874, daughter of Matthew and Maggie (Kuhn) Keilem, natives of Germany, who came to the United States as children. Mr. Keilem died in 1908, aged sixty-two years, while his widow still survives, having attained the age of sixty-two years. Mr. and Mrs. Brass have had the following children: Herbert, born September 26, 1896; Edward, born September 24, 1900; and Viola, born June 21, 1903.

WILLIAM SCHROEDER, who is carrying on farming and stock raising operations on a well-improved farm in section 31, Cicero township, was born in Germany, January 25, 1871, and is a son of Fred and Henrietta (Gast) Schroeder. Fred Schroeder was born in Pomerania, Germany, from which country he came to the United States with his wife and three children, August, William and Gusta, in 1881, coming direct to Appleton, where he spent the remainder of his life and died in 1900, aged seventy-six years. His widow, who still survives, is seventy-six years old, and a faithful member of the Lutheran Church, of which her husband was also a member. William Schroeder grew up in Appleton, and at the age of twelve years began working in a stave manufacturing plant. continuing there six years, and then becoming employed by Captain Welcome Hyde, with whom he remained until coming to Cicero township in 1897. Here he purchased eighty acres of land, of which twenty were cleared, and a frame house and log barn were situated on the place. He now has the land well improved, and las added to and completed the house and built a basement barn, 38x70 feet. He raises Guernsey grade cattle and Duroc hogs, and has been very successful in both farming and cattle raising. In 1895, Mr. Schroeder was married at Neenah, Wisconsin, to Miss Clara Cummings, who was born in Chicago, Illinois, daughter of Benjamin Cummings, a cooper by trade and a veteran of the Civil War, who died at Menasha, Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder have had two children: Arthur Myron, born May 7, 1897, in Appleton, Wisconsin; and Irene, born February 15, 1902, in Cicero.

JOHN CASEY. In naming the representative agriculturists of Ellington township, mention should be made of John Casey, an intelligent farmer of this section, who in addition to carrying on operations on 160 acres of land and engaging in stock raising, is serving his third year as superintendent of roads. He is a son of John Casey, a native of the Emerald Isle, who came to the United States when a young man and settled in Black Creek township, where he bought land and continued to live until his death in 1903. His widow, who prior to her marriage with Mr. Casey was Miss Elizabeth O'Brien, was also born in Ireland, and now resides in the village of Stephensville. John Casey, of this sketch, was born in Black Creek township, Outagamie county, May 29, 1872, and he received his education in the district schools of that locality. He worked on his father's farm until starting out on his own account for five years, after which he rented property on which to carry on his operations. At the end of this period he purchased a farm in Ellington township, but after four years sold that land and bought his present farm, a tract of 160 acres of excellent land, where he has been engaged in general and dairy farming and stock raising since 1906. He has made numerous improvements on his property, has equipped it with modern buildings and conveniences, and has always been an adherent of scientific farming and the use of modern machinery and methods. On April 26, 1899, Mr. Casey was united in marriage with Miss Maggie Wittlin, born August 29, 1877, daughter of John and Katherine Wittlin, and they have had a family of three sons and two daughters: Marion, born June 14, 1900; Clarence, June 9, 1903; Leo, August 8, 1905; Margaret, January 18, 1908; and Raymond, March 30, 1911. Mr. and Mrs. Casey are members of St. Patrick's Catholic Church at Stephensville. He is independent in his political views, and has been elected for three years to the office of superintendent of roads.

JOHN HERMAN, a representative agriculturist of Ellington township, who after years of hard work has eventually won success in his chosen field of agriculture, is one of the progressive men of his section and the owner of an excellent property. Mr. Herman is a native of the Buckeye State, where he was born in 1854, a son of Casper and Josephine Herman, natives of the Austrian province of Bohemia, who first settled in Ohio on coming to the United States in 1853, and later, in 1855, removed to Outagamie county, Wisconsin, and settled on the present farm of John Herman in Ellington township. Here the father died in 1890, while the mother suivived until 1902. Of their six children three are still living. John Herman received his education in the district schools in the vicinity of his native place, and he was reared to the life of an agriculturist. He started to work for his father as soon as he was old enough to do a fair share, and when his father retired from active life he continued to work for him until he had accumulated enough money to buy the property. He is engaged in general farming and dairy work, and by constant and arduous labor has made his properties one of the finest of its size in this part of the township. It is well and neatly fenced, finely graded, has good pasture land and is well equipped with modern conveniences and substantial buildings in a state of excellent repair. Although he has not found time to engage in matters of a public nature, he is serving his township in another way, for the advancement of the community depends upon the development of the land, and he who brings a portion of the country into a better state of cultivation is doing as much of a service as he who spends long periods in places of public preferment. Mr. Herman has never married. He is a consistent member of the Catholic Church at Greenville, and has done his share in contributing to church and charitable movements.

LOUIS JACQUOT, one of Hortonville's prominent and influential citizens, who has been engaged in the hotel and livery business here for nearly a quarter of a century, was born in Cape Vincent, Jefferson county, New York, August 25, 1839, one of the seven children of Francis and Blin (Miller) Jacquot. Francis Jacquot was a wine grower in the suburbs of Paris, France, and came to America in 1826, locating in Pleasant Valley, New York, where he engaged in farming and died when his son Louis was still very young. His widow sold out sixteen years after his death and came west to Greenville township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, in 1856, buying eighty acres of land in Hortonia township, which she gave to her son Louis, and here she passed the remainder of her life. Louis Jacquot received a common school education and at the age of seventeen years started out to make his own way in the world, having learned the carpenter's and cabinetmaker's trades. He also engaged in farming, and in February, 1865, enlisted in Company A., Forty-seventh Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, as a private, the regiment being sent to Tennessee to do guard duty, and Mr. Jacquot received his honorable discharge in September, 1865, having risen to the rank of sergeant and acting as orderly sergeant. After the war he returned home and entered a mercantile business with W. D. White at Hortonville, but after five years closed out and went on the road for the Odd Fellows, moving his family to Appleton in order that his children might have better advantages for an education, but in 1872 he moved back to Hortonville and engaged in contracting and building, and while thus engaged put in several thousand cords of stone from the quarries north of town. Since 1887 he has been engaged in the hotel and livery business, and his hostelry is well and favorably known to the traveling public. In politics he is a Democrat, and while he has never aspired to public preferment, he served in Hortonia township as justice of the peace for twenty or twenty-five years. He organized and was the first president of the village of Hortonville, which office he retained for two terms. Mr. Jacquot is remarkably well versed in law, and while he never sought to be admitted to the bar he is counsel for a number of business firms. Fraternally he is connected with the Royal Arch Masons, being a past master of the Blue Lodge, and also has held membership in the Odd Fellows. In 1858 Mr. Jacquot was married to Clara C. Wood, daughter of Clark Wood, who came to Outagamie county from New York in 1854, and to this union there were born the following children: Charles H., a traveling man of Minneapolis, Minnesota; Clarissa M., who married W. M. Hollenback, a newspaper man of New London, Wisconsin; John L., owner of the Appleton Cold Storage and of several cheese factories, and who manufactured the largest cheese ever made, it weighing 4,400 pounds; Edwin J., who is in the real estate and insurance business at Hortonville; Jennie V., who died September 28, 1908, the wife of Charles Benjamin; and Hattie E., the widow of John A. Printup. Mr. Jacquot's first wife died in 1903, and he was married (second) May 5, 1909, to Mrs. Lucinda P. (Whitman) McMurdo, the widow of John M. McMurdo, Jr. Mr. Jacquot has thirteen grandchildren, six boys and seven girls, and is great-grandfather of one.

ELIAB FARNAM, one of the honored pioneers of Hortonville, Wisconsin, now living retired after many years spent in agricultural pursuits, is highly esteemed as a veteran of the great Civil War. He was born at Attica, Wyoming county, New York, July 28, 1836, and is a son of Eliab Farnam, who was born December 3, 1796, in New York State, his parents coming from Connecticut. In 1849 Eliab Farnam, the father, brought his family west to Outagamie county, Wisconsin, settling on forty acres of land at a time when he not only lacked any worldly possessions, but was even in debt for part of the hauling from Green Bay. He found work at rail splitting, and by the spring of 1850 had two acres of his land cleared and put into potatoes and corn. During the summer he cut down pine trees and made 12,000 shingles, which he floated down to Oshkosh, and walked to that point to dispose of them for $24. This sum he invested in needed food, which was sent up the river by boat and dumped on the bank, from whence the whole family assisted in carrying it to the little log home. During the winter of 1850-51 Mr. Farnam cut 100,000 feet of logs, one-half of which he had to give to a neighbor for hauling them to the river bank, where he sold it, Mr. Farnam realizing $200 for his share. He purchased a yoke of oxen for $60, and three cows for $12 each. With the new means for clearing, the land was rapidly put under cultivation, and at the time of his death, June 11, 1873, Mr. Farnam saw that his years of labor had developed a finely conditioned and fertile property. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Sarah Peck, was of Connecticut descent, and died February 15, 1873. One of the brothers of this sturdy old pioneer was a civil engineer and helped to build the first railroad into Chicago, later taking the contract to build the Rock Island Railroad from Chicago to Rock Island, a work which was completed within one year.

Eliab Farnam, the son, received a common school education in New York, and after coming to Wisconsin attended district school for two months when he was eighteen years of age. He always remained on the home farm, which was added to from time to time and at the death of his parents he fell heir to the land. In 1858, Mr. Farnam was married to Miss Sophia Diener, who was born on the ocean en route to this country, and she died March 4, 1876. On January 4, 1879, Mr. Farnam was married (second) to Amelia Grunert, daughter of Ernest Grunert, a German miller, who on coming to the United States refused offers of work in Milwaukee and located in the town of Ellington, Outagamie county, where he engaged in farming until his death, March 25, 1907, being buried in Stephensville Cemetery. His wife, Henrietta (Krause) Grunert. whose parents were pioneers, died in 1894. Mr. and Mrs. Farnam had four children: Mrs. Myrtle Vogel, residing on the homestead, is the mother of three children; Ernest is a resident of California; Mrs. Louisa Lansing is living on a farm in Peck, Wisconsin; and Edna is residing at home. On September 9, 1861, Mr. Farnam enlisted in the First Wisconsin Cavalry, Company G., from which he was discharged on account of disability, August 7, 1862. He reenlisted September 28, 1864, in Company A, First Wisconsin Cavalry, and was honorably discharged July 19, 1865. During the latter enlistment the regiment was sent to Nashville, Tennessee, and then back to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was veteranized and detailed to scout duty in Kentucky with Wilson's Cavalry Corps. It then went into winter quarters at Gravel Springs, and in the spring of 1865 went through Alabama, helping to capture Montgomery, and took part in the battle of West Point, this being the last engagement of the war. On the nineteenth of April the news of Lee's surrender reached the regiment, and it went to Macon, Georgia, where the regiment's horses were exchanged for mules, which were ridden to Nashville, and the First was mustered out at Edgefield, now East Nashville. During the stay at Macon the regiment was sent to try and capture Jefferson Davis, and no doubt would have accomplished this had not the Michigan regiment gained their information and, cutting in ahead of the First on another road, secured the fugitive and the bounty. On his return from the war Mr. Farnam returned to his farming activities and was so engaged until his retirement, April 1, 1907, since which time he has been living in Hortonville. In politics he is a Republican, and he walked fifty miles to cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. He served district No. 6 of Ellington for twelve years as school treasurer. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and his wife of the Ladies' Relief Corps, and she is also an active worker in Methodist Church circles, assistant Sunday School superintendent and a teacher. Mr. Farnam has been an active Christian temperance worker. Although the greater part of his time was given to farming, during the latter years of his life he was interested in stock breeding, taking numerous prizes with his fine Jersey cattle and Chester White hogs.

JOHN LOWE, superintendent of the Appleton Coated Paper Company, one of Appleton's important industries, was born in England, in 1874, a son of Peter and Ellen (Robinson) Lowe; both of whom spent their lives in the old country. Mr. Lowe's education was secured in the English schools, and he first located in Appleton in June, 1894, being employed by the Telulah Paper Mill for about seven years and then entering the employ of the street car company, with which he was connected for four years. At this time he went to Kaukauna and became connected with the C. S. Boyd Paper Company, and in 1907, when the Appleton Coated Paper Company was organized, he returned to this city and entered their employ, being advanced to the position of superintendent in April, 1910. Mr. Lowe has had a wide and varied experience in his line of work, and in his official capacity is greatly advancing the interests of his company. In 1898, Mr. Lowe was united in marriage with Miss Jennie Powers, of Appleton, daughter of William Powers, and they have had a family of two children: Stanley, who is eight years old; and Loraine, aged five. Mr. and Mrs. Lowe are consistent members of St. Mary's congregation of the Roman Catholic Church. He is connected fraternally with the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic Order of Foresters.

GEORGE G. WEIHING, who is carrying on farming on the old Weihing family homestead in Center township, is ranked among the substantial agriculturists of this section, where he has also for some years been actively interested in matters of a public nature. He is a son of John Weihing, a native of Germany, who came to this country as a small boy with his father, also named John, a German carpenter who settled in Milwaukee. John Weihing learned the carpenter trade from his father, and followed that occupation in Milwaukee county until the family removed to Center township, Mr. Weihing purchasing a tract of farming land here on which he carried on farming until his death, in 1887, at the age of forty-six years. Mr. Weihing married Helen Schwalbach, who died in 1905, at the age of fifty-three years, and they had a family of ten children, of whom six now survive, namely: Mary, Sophia, George, Annie, Ella and Henry. George G. Weihing was born March 27, 1876, on the farm which he now cultivates, and his education was obtained in the district schools, after leaving which he started to work for his mother. He remained at home until he was twenty-five years old, at which time he went to work as agent for J. F. Schalbach, selling farming machinery, but after two years spent in this kind of work rented a farm in Center township and operated it for two years. He then purchased the old family homestead, which he is now operating as a general and dairy farm. He is well and favorably known in the vicinity of his home, and he has been twice elected a member of the board of school directors. On April 24, 1902, Mr. Weihing was married to Alvina Peters, daughter of Frederick and Elnora Peters, who came from Germany to the United States in 1865, settling in New York, from whence they came to Center township and here Mr. Peters died in 1896 and his widow in 1908. Mr. and Mrs. Weihing are consistent members of the German Lutheran Church of Ellington township.

ALEXANDER CONKEY, store keeper and time clerk for the Combined Locks Paper Company, in their mill at Combined Locks, Wisconsin, of which place he is acting as postmaster, is a Canadian by nativity, having been born in Ontario, July 18, 1863. His parents, Robert and Jane (Wiley) Conkey, natives of Ireland, were married in Canada, where Mrs. Conkey still resides at the age of eighty years, her husband having died there in 1909, when eighty-eight years of age. They had a. family of fourteen children, of whom Alexander was the ninth in order of birth. He received a good public school education, after which he took a course in telegraphy at Janesville, Wisconsin, and when twenty-five years of age was employed as operator at Minocqua, Wisconsin, on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. He was there for one month and then returned to Canada for a short time, after which he came to Bear Creek, Wisconsin, where he was employed as operator for about three months before being assigned to the office of operator and agent at Combined Locks, in January, 1890. He acted in that capacity for something over four years, when he was tendered the position of shipping and receiving clerk for the company with which he is now connected, and since that time has filled various offices in its mills. He is widely known in the paper trade in this part of Wisconsin and has made numerous friends during his long and faithful service. Mr. Conkey is a member of the Masonic order, belonging to Kaukauna Lodge No. 233. In politics a Republican, he served on the school board for some time, and during President Harrison's first administration he was appointed as the first postmaster at Combined Locks, a position which he held for eight years. In 1909 he received his present appointment, and his efficiency in handling the duties, together with his courtesy of manner, have made him an ideal official. He and his family are members of the Presbyterian Church of Kimberly. In 1888 Mr. Conkey was married to Miss Isabella Edwards, who was born May 12, 1866, the eldest of the five children born to William and Mary (Patterson) Edwards, natives of Ontario, Canada, and Scotland, respectively, who were married at the former place and spent the remainder of their lives there, the father dying in 1902, aged fifty-seven years. Mrs. Edwards still resides in Ontario and has reached the age of seventy years. Mr. and Mrs. Conkey have had three children: Mildred, who married John N. Cleland, living in Combined Locks, was educated in the public schools and spent one year in high school, then receiving special instruction in vocal and instrumental music; Wellington and Harry, both attending the Little Chute High school.

JOSEPH J. SCHINDLER, an industrious, well-to-do farmer of Buchanan township, was born in Outagamie county, Wisconsin, August 25, 1861, and is now operating a farm of forty acres located in section 28. He is a son of Gregory and Rosina Schindler, natives of Austria, who were married in that country and came to America during the '50s. On first coming here they settled in Menasha, later moved to Black Creek township, but eventually went to Appleton, where they purchased a farm of 160 acres located at East Menasha, Winnebago county. There they spent the remainder of their lives and both are buried in St. Mary's cemetery at Menasha.This worthy couple had a family of seven children, of whom Joseph J. was the youngest. At the time of his father's death he took charge of the homestead farm which he operated for about ten years and in the fall of 1898 bought his present property. He has his land all in a high state of cultivation and fenced with barbed wire, and he carries on general farming and markets dairy products and cabbages and some cattle and milks five graded Holstein cows.He also engages to some extent in horse breeding, keeping principally the French Coach breed. He is a Democrat in his political views, and with his family attends the Presbyterian Church at Kimberly. On August 14, 1890, Mr. Schindler was united in marriage with Miss Catherine Williams, who was born April 6, 1869, the seventh of the ten children born to David P. and Margaret (Jones) Williams, who came to America from Wales as young people and were married at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Later they settled at Neenah, Winnebago county, on a farm, and there lived during the remainder of their lives, both being buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery at Neenah. Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Schindler, namely: Margaret Rose, Rachel Cecelia, Esther Mary Jane, David Gregory, Franklin Thomas, Grace Nancy and Willard John Andrew.

FREDERICK M. ABRAHAM, one of the successful farmers and stock raisers of Dale township, who is now operating 103 acres situated in section 24, was born at Nekimi, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, March 9, 1870. His parents, John and Amelia (Haberberg) Abraham, were natives of Germany, in which country they were married, and came to the United States in 1868, settling in Winnebago county, in Nekimi township. They engaged in farming there until 1881, in which year they came to Outagamie county, settling on eighty acres of partly improved land in Dale township, one-half mile north of Medina, where Mr. Abraham died April 4, 1898, aged fifty-eight years, being buried in West Medina Cemetery. Mrs. Abraham now lives at the home of her daughter, Hannah, in Dale township, and is sixty-three years of age. Of the eleven children born to this couple, Frederick M. Abraham was the third in order of birth, and he has always resided on the home place. He was married November 25, 1898, to Miss Mina Haas, daughter of Andrew and Catherine (Marks) Haas, the former born in Baden and the latter in Hessen, Germany. They came to America as children and were married in Greenville township where they are still living, engaged in agricultural pursuits, the father being seventy-six and the mother seventy years old. Mr. Haas enlisted in 1864 in Company A, Fiftieth Wisconsin Volunteers, and was connected with that company until the close of the war. Mrs. Abraham was born December 2, 1867, the third born of a family of five children. She and Mr. Abraham have had four children: Franklin T., Ruth E., Albert and Ruby M., the latter two of whom died in infancy. Mr. Abraham carries on general farming and stock raising, markets dairy products, hogs, cattle, sugar beets and potatoes, and feeds his hay and grain except barley. He has seventy acres under the plow, all fenced with barbed and woven wire, and has his land in a high state of cultivation. In politics he is a Republican, and he and Mrs. Abraham and their children are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Medina. Both are firm believers in the benefits to be accrued from life insurance and each holds a policy for $1,000 in the Equitable Assurance Society of Niew York.

EDWARD R. BOWERMAN, one of the leading business citizens of Shiocton, Wisconsin, and proprietor of the Shiocton Telephone Company, was born December 8, 1864, at Clifton, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, a son of Israel and Mary (Foster) Bowerman, natives of this State. The parents of Mr. Bowerman came to Outagamie county in 1873 and settled in Bovina township, where the father died in 1893, Mrs. Bowerman having passed away twenty years before when thirty-four years of age. Israel Bowerman was a millwright by trade, and followed that occupation during his youth, but later on learned the jewelry business, in which he was engaged during the remainder of of his life. Edward R. Bowerman was the third of his parents' eight children and his education was secured in the public schools. At the age of thirteen years he commenced working for himself and during the years that followed he was engaged in various occupations until 1902, when he established the Shiocton Telephone Company, buying out the Hortonville Telephone Company, which consisted of fourteen telephones and a line between Hortonville and Shiocton. He has increased the business to such an extent that there are now over 500 telephones, 100 miles of toll lines and three exchanges are operated, one each at Shiocton, Black Creek and Seymour. Connection is made with the Bell organization at Seymour and Hortonville, and the service is rapid and efficient. Mr. Bowerman is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America, and is a Republican in politics, although he has not found time to engage actively in public matters.

In 1882, Mr. Bowerman was married to Miss Harriet Nagreen, who was born October 22, 1886, daughter of Joseph and Sarah Nagreen, natives of Austria and Pennsylvania, respectively. They came to Wisconsin in 1866 and settled in Hortonville, and are now residents of Appleton, the father being eighty-six and the mother seventy-six years old. Joseph Nagreen was a furniture dealer and undertaker, occupations which he followed throughout a long career, his retirement occurring in 1898. In 1861 he enlisted in Company F, Thirteenth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and when his service had expired he reenlisted in the same regiment and served until the close of the war. He was a brave and faithful soldier and was an active participant in some of the bloodiest engagements of the war, but the only injury he received serious enough to cause his confinement in the hospital was a sunstroke which he suffered before Vicksburg. Mr. and Mrs. Bowerman have one child: Edward Roy, born February 27, 1884. They are members of the First Congregational Church of Shiocton.

NICHOLAS F. RETTLER, who is cultivating a good tract of farming property on section 16, Black Creek township, belongs to the younger generation of agriculturists of Outagamie county, Wisconsin, where he was born August 31, 1884, a son of Nicholas and Anna Maria Rettler. The parents of Mr. Rettler, natives of Germany, were married at West Bend, Washington county, and came to Outagamie county in 1868, settling in Black Creek township, on eighty acres of land, where they lived until 1886. In this year they purchased the property on which Nicholas F. Rettler now resides, and they worked the two properties until 1898, when the first purchase was deeded to their son, John J., and in the spring of 1909, the second eighty was deeded to Nicholas F. Mr. Rettler's father died June 30, 1909, in his sixty-fifth year, while Mrs. Rettler still survives, being sixty-five years old and making her home with her son Nicholas. The father was an agriculturist all of his life, and was one of those who helped to develop this part of Outagamie county from the wilderness, his property at the time of purchase being all a wild timber and brush land. He cultivated and cleared fifty acres of the first eighty acres and sixty-three acres of the other erected buildings, built fences and in many ways made these properties handsome and comfortable homes for his sons. He and his wife were the parents of nine children, namely: Mathew, who is married and has four children, living in Black Creek township; George, single, living in Black Creek township; John J., who is married and living in Black Creek township, having eight children; Elizabeth, twin of John J., who died at the age of two and one-half years; Emma, who married John Helein, of Kaukauna, and has four children; Frank, who died in infancy; Elizabeth (II), who died at the age of two years; Margaret, who married Andrew Anderson, living in Antigo, Wisconsin, and has two children; and Nicholas F.

Nicholas F. Rettler has been operating the homestead property since the spring of 1909, and has made a number of improvements on his property. He raises large crops, farming along general lines and using scientific methods, and markets dairy products, hogs and grain. He has been successful in raising good stock and ships these to the various markets. His fraternal connection is with the Modern Woodmen of America, and in politics he is a Republican, while the family has been connected with the Catholic Church for many years. Mr. Rettler has never married.

CHARLES F. ZAHRT, whose fine forty-acre property adjoins the city of Seymour, Wisconsin, on section 28, Seymour township, is a native of Wisconsin, having been born in Dodge county, January 1, 1855, a son of John and Caroline (Krugler) Zahrt, natives of Germany. The parents of Mr. Zahrt were married in Germany, and came to the United States on a sailing vessel which took eight weeks for the journey across the ocean, and first located on a tract of twenty acres of wild land in Dodge county, Wisconsin. In 1869 the family removed to Ellington township, Outagamie county, coming with a yoke of oxen and one cow to a wild tract of eighty acres, and living under the tree tops until a shack could be erected for their protection. Here the family lived for eight or nine years and then moved to Stephensville, Wisconsin, on another unimproved eighty acres. They lived here about nine years and then came to Seymour township. Here they purchased forty acres of wild land on which they lived for fifteen years. From here they moved to the village of Stephensville, Wisconsin, where Mrs. Zahrt spent her last years. She was born in Germany in 1818 and died February 4, 1891. John Zahrt was born June 16, 1815, and died April 10, 1910. To Mr. and Mrs. Zahrt were born six children, namely: Augusta, who was born in 1845, and who died in 1865; William, born in 1848, a retired farmer of Appleton, Wisconsin; twins born in 1852, and died 1854, having been buried at sea while the family were en route to this country; Charles F.; and Adolph born in 1858, and died 1887. Charles F. Zahrt's boyhood days were filled with the hard, unremitting labor that attends the breaking in of a new country, and his education in the schools of Ellington was somewhat limited. When he reached the age of twenty years he struck out for himself and for one year worked for his brother, and during the four or five years following spent his winters in work in the lumber mills and the summer months on the farm. He also went to school for a winter or two after he was twenty years of age, and eventually purchased a tract of uncultivated land in Shawano county. He started with a log shack 12x16 feet, in which he lived while he cleared up the land and then erected some good frame buildings. During the following ten years he "bached it," but in 1893 he was married to Mary Hallam and they continued to reside on his property for seven years. In 1900 Mr. Zahrt sold this and moved near the city of Seymour, but after one year there removed to the present home, a tract of forty acres adjoining the city, on section 28 where he has finely improved property and is actively engaged in general farming. Mrs. Zahrt was born in Calumet county, Wisconsin, September 7, 1874, daughter of John and Jane (Baker) Hallam, the former a native of England and the latter of Calumet county. Mr. and Mrs. Hallam had three children, namely: George, Mary and Bessie. Mr. and Mrs. Zahrt have been the parents of three children: Effie, born November 25, 1894, who died September 18, 1895; Gladys, born November 25, 1895; and Elmer, born June 6, 1898.

FRANK DUNST, one of Osborn township's most respected citizens, resides on his excellent farm in section 5, which he devotes to stockraising and general agriculture. He was born in Germany, February 24, 1866, and is a son of Frank and Henrietta (Hilderbrandt) Dunst. They were natives of Germany and married there and came to America in 1868. The father died in 1907, aged seventy-five years, but the mother survives, at the same age. They had the following children: Amelia, Fred, Augusta and Frank, Annie, Emma and Charley. Fred dying in Germany. The Dunst family located first at Cooperstown, Manitowoc county, Wisconsin, but two years later the father bought twenty acres of wild land in that vicinity and cleared it. In 1884 they came to Outagamie county and bought eighty acres of wild land in Osborn township, on which there were no buildings and at that time no roads led to it. They erected a log cabin with dimensions of 18x24 feet. Before the father died he had built a part of the present house and a basement barn, with dimensions of 40x70 feet, and other substantial farm structures. He was a hard-working, worthy man and was respected by all who knew him.

Frank Dunst has always lived at home and in 1899 came into possession of the farm to which he has added forty acres which he has since sold and has improved the house and surroundings. He pays considerable attention to graded stock. In 1900 he was married to Lizzie Hintz, a daughter of the late Julius Hintz, an old settler of Osborn township. They have three children: Leona, Elwyn, and Harvey. Mr. Dunst is a man of energy and has very sensible and practical ideas about farming and stockraising as well as on the public questions of the day.

JOHN L. PARKER, farmer and stock raiser and one of the progressive, public-spirited citizens of Center township, is a son of George Washington Parker, who was born in New York in 1827, and came to Outagamie county, Wisconsin, in the early '40s, purchasing land in Ellington township. There he married Sarah Smith, whose parents came from New York and settled in Ellington township, and in 1878 Mr. Parker removed to Center township, where he spent the remainder of his life in agricultural pursuits and died in 1903, his wife having passed away in 1871. Of their four children, one is deceased, and John L. and two sisters are living. John L. Parker was born June 18, 1863, in Ellington township, and his education was secured in the district schools of that township and the schools in the vicinity of the Center township farm, which he left at the age of seventeen or eighteen years. His boyhood was spent much the same as other farmer's boys of that date, their services being required on the home farm every minute that they could spare from school, and early in life he learned those traits of energy, economy and frugality, as well as a quality of keeping everlastingly at whatever he set out to accomplish, that have assured him success in his chosen field. At the time of his father's retirement from active labor, Mr. Parker took over the management of the home farm, and he has since installed many improvements, erecting new buildings, repairing others and keeping the farm in a high state of cultivation. General farming and dairying have occupied his time, and he raises large crops and finds a ready market for them. He is liberal in his political views, but, other things being equal, he votes the Republican ticket.

On December 3, 1890, Mr. Parker was married to Annie Reihl, daughter of Christian and Theresa (Fries) Reihl, natives of Germany, the latter of whom died in 1881, while the former makes his home with Mr. and Mrs. Parker. Seven children have been born to John L. and Annie Parker, namely: Wilbert, who died aged two years, born July 24, 1896; and Walter, Elma, Earl, Leland, Howard and Clement. Mr. and Mrs. Parker belong to the German Lutheran Church of Ellington.

JULIUS MODERSOHN, a well known farmer of Ellington township, owning a well cultivated tract of farming land on Shiocton Rural Route No. 29, has interested himself to some extent in the cause of education, and is now serving in the capacity of school clerk. He is a son of William Modersohn, a native of Germany who came to the United States prior to the coming of his family. William Modersohn landed at Baltimore in 1853, and from that city made his way to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, where he bought land and resided for four or five years, then returning to Baltimore, where he spent a like period in the sugar refinery. At this time Mr. Modersohn's family joined him, and they went to Chicago, where they remained for one year. The family next moved to the town of Freedom, where for twelve years they resided on a farm, and at the end of that time removed to De Pere where Mr. Modersohn's death occurred in 1897, his wife having passed away in 1891. She bore the maiden name of Lizetta Buddeberg, was a native of Germany and became the mother of six children. Julius Modersohn was born October 3, 1849, and received a good education in the schools of Germany, which country he left at the age of thirteen years, and from that time until he was twenty-four years of age he was engaged in working on his father's farm. At the end of this time he began to learn the trade of carpenter, an occupation which he followed during the next twenty-eight years. When his parents moved to De Pere, he and family moved to Milwaukee where they resided two years, then removed to Appleton where for about twenty-five years he worked at carpentering. He then traded his Appleton property for his present farming property in the town of Ellington where he has since resided. He is engaged in general farming and dairy work, and has developed his land into one of the best properties in this part of the township. In 1874, Mr. Modersohn was married to Elvina Deitrich, who was also born in Germany and came to this country with her parents, Frederick and Sophia Deitrich, who settled in Freedom township and engaged in farming during the remainder of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Modersohn have had eight children: Frederick, Herman, William, Albert, Edward, Oscar, Emma and Walter, of whom William is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Modersohn are members of the German Lutheran Church at Shiocton, and he has been interested in church, social and educational work, being the present clerk of the school district.

CHRISTIAN WUNDERLICH, an influential and well-to-do agriculturist of Ellington township, whose fine farm is situated on Greenville Rural Route No. 16, has been a lifelong resident of this township, having been born on the farm he now operates, February 12, 1868, a son of Christian and Dora Wunderlich. Mr. Wunderlich's father was born in Germany, and on coming to this country with his parents at the age of twelve years, settled first in Milwaukee, where he was reared. He came to Ellington township during the '50s, when a young man, and took up wild land, which was the nucleus for the present fine Wunderlich property. Here he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until his retirement in 1905, at which time he went to Appleton, and he and his wife now live in that city. Chris was one of eight children born to his parents, and he was reared on his father's farm, dividing his time with work thereon and attendance in the district schools of his neighborhood. He continued to work for his father until he was twenty-seven years of age, at which time the farm was given into his management, and he subsequently bought the farm from his father. This property, which was originally owned by Ferdinand Schultz and bought from him by Christian Wunderlich, Sr., has been brought to a high state of cultivation, and yields full, prosperous crops. The buildings are in an excellent state of repair, and the farm is well appointed and equipped with the latest and most highly improved power farming machinery. In 1895 Mr. Wunderlich was married to Mary Riehl, the estimable daughter of Christian and Theresa Riehl, farming people of Center township, and to this union there have been born seven children, of whom one, Hilbert, died at the age of eight years. Those who survive are Edna, Hilda, Ora, Caryle, Harold and Ruth. Mr. and Mrs. Wunderlich are faithful members of the German Lutheran Church of Ellington.

ERASTUS P. BURDICK, farmer and stock raiser of Deer Creek township, and the owner of an eighty-acre farm in section 34, and 40 acres in section 26, timber lot 1, has served as school clerk of his township for the past eight years. He is a native of Winnebago county, Wisconsin, and was born August 10, 1864, a son of Erastus P. and Olive M. (Birdsell) Burdick, natives of the Empire State. They were married in Ripon, Winnebago county, whence Mr. Burdick had come about 1848 and his wife some time about 1842 with her parents. On February 27, 1864, Mr. Burdick enlisted for service in the Union army, becoming a member of Company K, Thirty-fifth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and at Morganza, Louisiana, contracted yellow fever, from the effects of which he died August 15th of that year. Erastus P. Burdick always remained at home with his mother, and in August, 1883, they came to Outagamie county and bought the place where Mr. Burdick now resides although previous to this time they had resided in Butte des Morts, Winnebago county. Mrs. Burdick died in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, while on a visit, December 20, 1897, when sixty-three years of age. About fifty-five acres of the farm had been cleared when Mr. Burdick and his mother first settled upon it, and this was still filled with stumps, but the present farm has seventy acres under- cultivation, and now boasts of a modern farm barn, 32x74, built in 1906, and a fine residence, the whole property being fenced with American netted and barbed wire. On October 18, 1899, Mr. Burdick was married to Miss Lena Steinel, born September 18, 1873, daughter of Andrew and Dorothea (Ritter) Steinel, natives of Germany who came to America in early life. Her father died when she was but seven years old and her mother remarried and is now living in the town of Hortonia. Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Burdick: Olive, Dorothy, Marion and Florence. Mr. Burdick does general farming, raises Durham cattle and Poland China hogs, milks about fourteen cows throughout the year and markets dairy products. He is a Republican in politics and at present is township clerk, an office he has held for eight years, and he has also been a member of the school board for four terms.

ANTHONY WALLACE, who is engaged in cultivating a fine farming property in Ellington township, has been identified with the farming interests of this section all of his life. He was born in Ellington township, on the old Wallace homestead, November 23, 1870, and is a son of Anthony Wallace, who was born in Ireland, August 15, 1825. Mr. Wallace's father came to the United States when about twenty years of age, landing at New York City and working on the old Vanderbilt estate. Later he came West and settled in Michigan, but after a short time came to Outagamie county, Wisconsin and purchased land in Ellington township, which he claimed from the timber and cultivated into an excellent farm, adding from time to time to his acreage. He lived on this property until three years before his death, when he retired and moved to the home of his son, Anthony, and there he died August 6, 1907, at the age of eighty-two years. He married Mary McKeefry, who was born in Ohio, March 4, 1837, her parents having located in that State after coming from Ireland, and later moved to Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Wallace had six sons and three daughters. Anthony Wallace received a district school education and was reared to the life of a farmer, buying his present property in 1895. He has carried on general farming and dairying, and has put his property in excellent condition. In 1910, Mr. Wallace was married to Julia Schmit, daughter of Anthony and Mary Schmit of Greenville township, and they attend the Catholic Church at Stephensville. Mr. Wallace's brothers and sisters were born as follows: Katherine, May 4, 1860; Thomas, April 27, 1862; John, March 21, 1864; James, April 11, 1866; Mary, October 5, 1868; Patrick, April 24, 1872; Jane, November 3, 1875; and Michael, June 6, 1878.

STEPHEN R. STILP, office manager of the Kimberly & Clark Company's mills at Kimberly, Wisconsin, has worked his way to the position which he now holds in a comparatively short time from that of office boy, the capacity in which he joined this company, and is an example of what may be accomplished by persistency of effort rightly directed and a determination to succeed. Born in Neenah, Wisconsin, in 1874, Mr. Stilp is a son of John and Josephine Stilp, the former a native of Prussia and the latter of Southern Germany. Mr. Stilp's parents came to the United States as young people, locating in Wisconsin in 1849, and being married in this State. John Stilp, whose occupation was that of shoemaker, is now deceased. Stephen R. Stilp's education was secured in the parochial school at Neenah, and even in boyhood he showed his enterprise by devoting his vacations to work in a grocery store instead of joining his less energetic companions in play. On completing his schooling he entered the Appleton Chair Company's factory at Menasha, where he was employed for about one year, and he first entered the employ of the Kimberly & Clark Company in 1890, in the capacity of office boy. His advance since that time has been rapid, and although still a young man he holds the responsible position of office manager for the large interests of the company at Kimberly, where he also serves as county supervisor. In 1895, Mr. Stilp was united in marriage with Miss Ella Beach, of Neenah, daughter of J. P. and Ella (Platt) Beach, of Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Stilp have had four children: Stephen R., Jr., Dorothy M., Alice G. and Helen J. Mr. and Mrs. Stilp are members of Father Van Nistelroy's Holy Name Catholic congregation, and he is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Modern Woodmen and the E. F. U. In his political affiliation, he adheres stanchly to the principles of the Republican party.

MILES MEIDAM, a progressive, wide-awake citizen of Appleton, Wisconsin, who is proprietor of the old Rogers greenhouse, at No.1363 Carver street, was born in Appleton, July 30, 1858, and is a son of John and Richa Meidam. The father, who was a hewer of timber and farmer, came with his family to this country from Holland, settling in Appleton where he spent the remainder of his days on a small farm, his death occurring in 1836, and that of his widow in 1906. Prior to her marriage to Mr. Meidam, Mrs. Meidam had been the wife of a Mr. Van Oyen, who died leaving her six children, and to her second marriage there were born eight children, of whom five survive: Miles, Stephen, Dennis, Henrietta and Mary. Miles Meidam secured his education in the common schools of Appleton, and in 1874 he began to work for the Riverside Association, with which he was connected for thirteen years. In 1887 he entered the employ of W. H. Rogers, who had established a business in 1873 on Carver street, and after working for Mr. Rogers for five years, Mr. Meidam commenced renting the property of him and eventually purchased the greenhouse. There are one and one-half acres of land, covered with shrubs, slips, trees, lawns and flowers, and the old stand is well patronized by those who appreciate the beautiful arrangement of flowers and ferns. Mr. Meidam makes a specialty of elaborate pieces for funerals, weddings or celebrations, and his cut flowers and designs are much in demand, it requiring the services of two employes and a wagon for him to supply his trade. In 1882 Mr. Meidam was married to Minnie J. Rogers, daughter of W. H. and Lucinda Ann (Coats) Rogers, pioneers of Appleton, and three children have been born to this union: Ray, who is engaged in business with his father; Glenn, attending school; and Roger, who is deceased. The family attends the Baptist Church. Mr. Meidam's fraternal connection is with the Odd Fellows.

ARGO M. FOSTER, M. D., one of the successful young physicians and surgeons of Outagamie county, Wisconsin, engaged in an extensive practice in the City of Kaukauna, is a Canadian by birth, having been born in 1886 at Rondo, Ontario, a son of David M. and Rebecca (Moore) Foster. Dr. Foster's mother died when he was but seven months old, and in 1888 his father moved to Michigan, where he was again married. He still lives in Michigan, working at his trade of marine engineer. Argo M. Foster received his early education in Michigan, and after completing a public and high school course, entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at first taking the pharmacy course; he later took up medicine and graduated for the medical department thereof in 1910, at which time he came to Kaukauna and has since been engaged in practice here with his uncle. The latter, Argo Melborn Foster, was also born in Canada, and is a graduate of the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery of Detroit, Michigan, where he was matriculated in 1892, and after practicing at Detroit and Cleveland came to Kaukauna in 1904, where he has been engaged in a general practice to the present time. He was married to Dora Genard, of Medina, New York, in 1892. Dr. Foster is a member of the Masons, the Elks and the Odd Fellows, and both he and his nephew hold membership in the county, state and national medical associations.

CHARLES RISTAU, a prominent contractor of Kaukauna, who has been connected with various business enterprises in this city for a long period, was born in West Prussia, Germany, October 3, 1866, and is a son of Gottlieb and Amelia (Karth) Ristau. Mr. Ristau's parents came to the United States in 1871, locating at Utica, New York, and later moving to Minnesota, where Mr. Ristau took up a homestead. In 1874 he came to Kaukauna and was employed on the government dam, but died during the same year. His first wife died in 1867, and in 1869 he was married (second) to Minnie Zimmerman, who was married again after his death. Charles Ristau received a public school education at Kaukauna, and after completing his studies he took up papermaking, becoming boss in the paper mills. Later he entered the retail liquor business, in which he continued for a few years, and in 1893, with Peter J. Helf, he organized the City Brewery at Kaukauna, being one of the proprietors thereof for five years. His next business venture was conducting a hotel with his brother, whom he later bought out, and he continued to conduct this hostelry until July, 1909, when he sold out and engaged in contracting, which has been his occupation to the present time. On August 14, 1888, Mr. Ristau was married to Miss Annie Adrians, daughter of Nicholas Adrians, of Appleton, and they had a family of eight children. Mrs. Ristau died in 1904, and he was married (second) to Minnie Adrians, his first wife's sister. Mr. Ristau is a member of the Elks, the Eagles and the Kaukauna Advancement Club. He has been alderman of the First Ward, and is the owner of Columbia Park, which is now being used by the city. Successful as a business man, and public spirited as a citizen, Mr. Ristau is held in high esteem by his fellow townsmen, and he has an ever-widening circle of warm personal friends.

ALEXANDER W. MCLEAN, who during the past ten years has been engaged in business in Kaukauna, is now the principal owner and manager of a large factory for the manufacture of papermaking machinery. He was born in Canada in 1841, and when he was twenty-two years of age came to Wisconsin, settling first at Fond du Lac, where for thirty-seven years he was in the employ of the Northwestern Railroad, working his way up from a humble position in the shops to the office of master mechanic of the Appleton Division. On January 1, 1895, Mr. McLean came to Kaukauna, and in 1900 bought the shop of William Laggert, which he has since operated as the Kaukauna Machine Works. Mr. McLean manufactures paper mill machinery, including pulp and wallpaper machinery, and one of the factory's specialties is the "Columbia Slotter and Winder," which has a large sale, and which has been patented by Mr. McLean. The foundry used by the works is 75x50 feet, while the machine shop is 75x100 feet, electric power being used throughout and from twelve to twenty skilled mechanics being employed. Mr. McLean is an enterprising and progressive business man, and has made a place for his goods in markets all over the United States and Canada, as well as having his full share of the trade of the numerous paper mills lying in the Fox River valley. On January 28, 1874, Mr. McLean was married in Fond du Lac to Lizzie B. McLaughlin, a native of the State of Maine, and they have been the parents of one daughter, Anne B. Mr. McLean is well known in fraternal circles, having attained to the thirty-second degree in Masonry.

MORITZ F. GRUNERT, who during a long period of years was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Ellington township, was one of his section's most highly esteemed citizens, and in his death, which occurred in January, 1907, Outagamie county lost a good citizen and a public official of the highest integrity. Mr. Grunert was a son of Johann Grunert, who came to this country from Germany with his wife and family during the '50s, and Moritz F. Grunert emigrated to the United States in 1850, when he was twenty years of age. He first settled in New York, from whence he went to Chicago, working by the day for a short time. In 1854 he came to Ellington township and bought land near the present village of Stephensville. In 1862 he was married to Cynthia J. Heath, born in New York State, daughter of Horatio Heath, who was one of the very first settlers of Stephensville, being connected with the lumber mill. The day following his marriage Mr. Grunert joined his company, Company D, of the Twenty-first Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, he having enlisted for service in the Civil War, and after three years of brave and meritorious service received his honorable discharge and returned to the farm. His health having been seriously impaired by the hardships of army life, Mr. Grunert at this time sold his property and moved to the village of Stephensville, where he remained for several years, then buying a property just east of the village, where he was engaged in farming up to the time of his death. For fifteen years he held the office of township clerk and he was also a member of the township board for many years, bringing to his official positions those traits of character that make for honest and efficient public service. He was a member of the German Lutheran Church, while his wife, who died in 1905, held membership with the Methodist denomination. They had a family of seven children, all of whom are living: Estella, Carrie, Horatio, Anna, Norman, Sarah and Chauncey.

CATHERINE AGNES MURPHY, one of the best known ladies of Welcome, Wisconsin, who is the manager of the mercantile business belonging to her deceased brother's children, was born October 9, 1865, in Outagamie county, Wisconsin, on the farm which was owned by her father and on which the village of Welcome now stands. She is a daughter of Daniel and Joanna (Crowley) Murphy, natives of Ireland, the former of whom came to St. Johns, Newfoundland, at the age of twenty years and shortly afterwards settled in Fall River, Massachusetts. Some time later he came to Cedarburg, Wisconsin, and for a few years lived with his brother. Joanna Crowley came to the United States at the age of fifteen years with her parents, and first settled at Fort Lee, New Jersey, later locating in Horicon. She was married to Mr. Murphy at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, and for six or seven years lived at Horicon, during which time Mr. Murphy worked in the South on cotton plantations, although he visited his family at intervals. In the summer of 1863, the Murphys and three other families moved from Horicon to Belle Plain, Wisconsin, some miles north of Clintonville, this State, traveling overland in wagons. They had purchased the land some time previously and went there with the intention of farming, but found the land stony and unfit for agricultural purposes and started the return journey to Horicon. When they reached this point they met Captain Hyde, an early settler in Waupaca county, and all but one of the families bought land and settled here, Mr. Murphy purchasing eighty acres on which the village of Welcome now stands and later buying a twenty and still later forty acres. He first built a log house, in which the family lived for five years and then erected a larger log house on the last forty acres where water was easier to secure, and this house is still standing and is used for a granary on the homestead. Fifteen years later he built a frame house. Mrs. Murphy died in 1877 at the age of thirty-nine years, and is buried in Welcome Cemetery, and Mr. Murphy passed away in 1900, when seventy-seven years old. He was a Democrat in politics, but never aspired to hold office. Mr. and Mrs. Murphy had nine children: Mary, married M. F. Clark and is now residing on the old Murphy homestead and has two children; Patrick D., married Mary Sullivan, of Lebanon, Wisconsin, and died August 20. 1899, leaving six children; John and Daniel died in childhood; Catherine Agnes; John T., single and living in Omaha, Nebraska; Margaret, married James McCormick and is now living in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; Nellie died at the age of seven years; and Julia, Sister Laurentia at Dixon, Illinois.

Miss Murphy's brother, Patrick D. Murphy, established the mercantile business of which she is now the manager, in June, 1886, and at the time of his death, Miss Catherine A. Murphy was appointed guardian of his children and has been conducting the mercantile business ever since with superior business ability. With the others of her family, Miss Murphy is a faithful member of the Catholic Church.

FRANK JEPSON, who owns and operates an excellent farm of 100 acres located in section 31, Deer Creek township, is a native of Outagamie county, having been born December 29, 1861, the second of a family of four children. At the age of eighteen years he was employed as water boy of a construction gang on what is now the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, and for thirteen years continued in railroad construction work, then purchasing the place where he now lives, where he has resided ever since. He has a finely improved tract, ninety acres being under cultivation, and has three modern barns, the first, 36x56 feet built in 1893; the second, 36x58 feet, in 1895, and the third, 20x60 feet, built in 1908. He built a large and comfortable frame dwelling house in 1892, and the whole farm bears evidence of excellent management. He does general farming and stock raising and markets dairy products, hogs and cattle, as well as sugar beets. He handles Short Horn cattle, milks about ten cows, and raises Poland-China hogs. In 1883 Mr. Jepson married Miss Edna Pelton, of Fond du Lac, who died in January, 1889, leaving three daughters. The eldest, Clara A., married Casper Daggett, and is now living in Seymour; Bessie H. married Charles McLeod, and is now living in Shawano and has two children; and the youngest, Vesta P., married Ernest Timmreck and is now living in Maple Creek township and has one child. In October, 1890, Mr. Jepson was married to Mary Calkins, born January 28, 1868, daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Hutchison) Calkins, natives of New York State who were married in Outagamie county. Mrs. Calkins died in 1886, while Mr. Calkins, who is seventy-three years old, is still surviving and makes his home at Mattoon. Mr. and Mrs. Jepson have had eight children, of whom the eldest, Iva P., died in infancy, while the others are living at home, namely: Ada M., Evva A., Lester R., Harold H., Leonard F., Isla L. and Calla V. Mr. Jepson is a Republican in his political views and has served three years as township treasurer and as a member of the school board for ten years. He and his family are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of Welcome, Wisconsin.

PETER J. DEMPSEY, who is the owner and operator of a fine tract of 120 acres in section 30, Deer Creek township, is one of the good, practical farmers of this section, and was born February 11, 1859, in Horicon, Dodge county, Wisconsin, a son of Martin and Mary (Doran) Dempsey, natives of Ireland who were married in that country. They camne to America in the early '50s and first settled in New York State, and a few years later came to Horicon, Wisconsin, from whence in 1863, with a few other families, they drove overland to the northern part of the State, where they had purchased land with the intention of farming it. This land, however proved to be so stony and unfertile that after a few months the party started to return to Horicon, but when they had reached Deer Creek township they met Captain Hyde, an early settler here,, who advised them to buy land, and with the exception of one family, they did so. Martin Dempsey purchased 120 acres of wild land, on which he worked until June 11, 1869, when he was killed by the fall of a limb of a tree, but his widow, who is eighty-six years old, still survives and makes her home in this township with her daughter, Margaret. When Mr. Dempsey first bought the land he erected a log cabin, and with a team of oxen, a cow, a wagon, plow and drag, he started in to clear his property from the wilderness, and before his death had erected a log stable. After his demise his widow continued to operate the property until 1910. Mr. Dempsey was the fourth of the eight children of this worthy old pioneer couple and he remained on the home farm until he was twenty-six years of age, at which time he purchased the property which is now his home. He was married in June, 1887, to Miss Mary Mullarkey, daughter of John and Ann Mullarkey, natives of Ireland who came to America in early life and were married at Buffalo, New York. They came to Wisconsin about 1858 and purchased 160 acres of land in Waupaca county, a wild, unfertile tract with which they had much trouble in its cultivation. They were among the first settlers there, and spent the remainder of their lives in that section, the father dying in January, 1861, aged sixty-five years, and the mother in 1907, when she was seventy-three. Mrs. Dempsey was the eldest of a family of six children, and was born September 15, 1859. Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Dempsey, namely: Miles P., clerking in a hardware store in Waupun; Philip G., working in an automobile factory in Port Huron; John J.; Catherine; Martin F., and Anna L., all single and at home. At the time that Mr. Dempsey came to his present property there had been fifteen acres cleared of timber and a log house built, as well as a log barn. He had a team of colts, a wagon, plow and drag to start with, and he now has eighty acres under cultivation, a modern frame house, built in 1890, and a basement barn, 32x74 feet, built in 1893. His property is all fenced with barbed wire. Mr. Dempsey carries on general farming and stock raising, and markets dairy products and hogs, and has Holstein cattle and Poland-China hogs. Fraternally, he is connected with the Modern Woodmen of America. In politics he is a Democrat, and he has served five years as town treasurer and as treasurer of the school board for ten years. With his family he attends St. Mary's Catholic Church of Welcome, Wisconsin.

JOHN FLANAGAN. Prominent among the agriculturists of Maple Creek township, Outagamie county, may be mentioned John Flanagan, whose excellent farm of 137 acres is located in section 19. Mr. Flanagan is a native of Worcester, Massachusetts, born November 1, 1846, a son of Michael and Mary (Hearn) Flanagan, natives of Ireland who were married in Canada, while en route to the United States during the late '30s. They settled first in Massachusetts, and in 1849 came to Wisconsin, settling in Milwaukee, where they remained for about one year, and then moved on to Madison. In September, 1855, the family left that city for Little Chute, Outagamie county, where Mr. Flanagan was engaged in the hotel business until February, 1856, and then moved to the farm on which John Flanagan is now carrying on operations in Maple Creek township, which Michael Flanagan had purchased some years before from the State school lands. Here Michael Flanagan died November 15, 1857, aged forty-seven years, and his widow continued to reside here until her death in February, 1894, when she was seventy-two years old. When the family first settled on this property, Mr. Flanagan's sole means of clearing his property was with his axe, but he set to work with this to cut down trees, and with the assistance of neighbors built a log cabin. In the following spring he purchased a yoke of oxen and a cow, and improvised a drag to break the ground with, and with this started to work. After her husband's death, Mrs. Flanagan continued with the assistance of her sons to clear and develop the land. John Flanagan was the third born in a family of five children, and he was married September 4, 1876, to Miss Ann Mulroy, daughter of Edward and Catherine (Carney) Mulroy, natives of Ireland who came to America about 1847 and settled first in New York State, from whence two years later they came to Kaukauna, Wisconsin. Mr. Mulroy was here employed in government construction work for two years, after which the family moved to Waupaca county and purchased land, engaging in farming, and Mr. Mulroy died there in 1900, when upwards of eighty years of age, while his widow still survives, and has also reached advanced years. Mrs. Flanagan was the third born of a family of nine children and was born August 15, 1854. Mr. and Mrs. Flanagan have had nine children, all of whom were educated in the New London Parochial school. The eldest, Thomas, is single and living at home. He and the next two oldest own a farm near to that of their father, and work it jointly. Thomas Flanagan is a graduate of the New London High school and took a course at the Green Bay Business College, and is now supervisor of assessments of Outagamie county. Lawrence, James and John Flanagan reside at home. Mary, a graduate of the New London High school. Garrett is a graduate of the New London High school and has had two years at the Marquette Medical University, from which he expects to graduate with the class of 1913, with the degree of M. D. Catherine, the seventh in order of birth, died at the age of five years. Alice is now attending the New London High school, and Edward, the youngest is also attending school.

Mr. Flanagan is engaged in general farming and stock raising and has 100 acres under the plow. His farm is fenced with barbed wire, and his buildings are in an excellent state of repair. His dairy products, hogs and potatoes find a ready sale in the markets of this vicinity, but he feeds all of his hay and grain, his specialty in breeding being Percheron horses. In political matters he is a Democrat, and he has served upwards of twenty-five years as assessor, was a member of the board of supervisors for two terms, and has been on the school board for one term. He and his family hold membership in the Catholic Church of the Most Precious Blood, New London.

JOHN BOTTENSEK. Among the prominent members of the Outagamie county bar may be mentioned John Bottensek, who has been identified with the public interests of Appleton for many years. He was born in Waukesha county, Wisconsin, January 4, 1850, and is a son of John H. and Sophia (Remmers) Bottensek, natives of Hanover, Germany, who came to the United States in 1848 and located in Waukesha county. In 1855 John H. Bottensek took his family to Outagamie county, where he located on a farm of wild land in the town of Dale, and there he remained the rest of his life, being engaged in clearing his land and farming it and his death occurred in March, 1865, his widow surviving him for forty years. Both were members of the Lutheran Church, and had these children: John; August, a resident of Medina, Wisconsin; William, who died at the age of twenty-one years; Lena, who married Edward Wege, a resident of the town of Ellington; and one child who died when eleven months of age. John Bottensek's early education was secured in the log schoolhouse in the vicinity of his father's farm in Dale, after leaving which he entered Lawrence University, and was graduated therefrom with the class of 1872. During 1873 and 1874 he worked in the postoffice and in June, 1875, he graduated from the Law School of the University of Wisconsin. After graduation he settled down to the practice of his profession in Appleton, and this has been his field to the present time. During President McKinley's administration, from 1895 until 1898 inclusive, Mr. Bottensek served as district attorney of Outagamie county, he was alderman in 1879-80, served for eight years as a member of the county board, and was for three years a trustee of the Insane Asylum. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen and the Masons, being past master of the Blue Lodge, high priest of his chapter and a member of the commandery.

On September 26, 1877, Mr. Bottensek was married to Miss Elsie M. Buck, of Appleton, Wisconsin, daughter of Julius and Elsie M. (Hawley) Buck, who came from Great Bend, Pennsylvania, and were among the very first families to settle in Appleton. Mr. and Mrs. Bottensek have had one daughter: Elsie S., who married George F. Kull, local editor of the Appleton Post.

JACOB HEAGLE, who is one of the representative farmers and stockraisers of Osborn township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, came to this part of the country a poor man and through his energy and industry has become one of financial independence. He was born October 22, 1843, at Rawdon, Canada, and is a son of Henry and Eliza (Sharp) Heagle, both of whom were natives of the state of New York. Jacob Heagle visited Wisconsin in early manhood but remained only a short time, going back to Canada, but after the close of the Civil War, in 1865, returned to Wisconsin, with his parents and they settled in Outagamie county. In the year 1866 he married Mary Olive Dodge and they located on a partly cleared tract of land containing eighty-three acres, situated in sections 3 and 4, Osborn township. It was a lonesome place in those days, there being no road yet built, only a trail through the woods leading to their humble shanty. They were practical, hard-working people and continued to live in the shanty until they could afford to start the building of a frame house into which they moved as soon as possible. To this additions have been made and now they have a commodious and comfortable farm house. Mr. Heagle has always labored hard and in early days cleared land for his neighbors in order to get money with which to purchase a team and farm implements for himself. Twenty-three and 75-100 acres were added to the original farm and all has been cleared. The barn, with dimensions of 30x50 feet was built some years ago and has been raised and a basement with cement floor added. The sons of Mr. Heagle take considerable pride in the fine thorough-bred trotting horses raised here. Mr. and Mrs. Heagle had the following children: Mrs. Alberta Bowerman of Seattle, Washington; Arthur, of Green Bay, Wisconsin; Frank, a rural mail carrier out from Seymour, Wisconsin; May, Mrs. Loren Felio, of Niagara, Wisconsin; Henry, residing on the home place; Pearl, Mrs. Louis Reis, of Seymour, Wisconsin; and Earl and Ida, the former of whom is residing on the home farm and the latter is deceased. Mr. Heagle has great reason to take pride in what he has accomplished. He is one of the township's most respected citizens.

AUGUST NITSCHKE, one of the old and honored residents of Appleton, Wisconsin, and a veteran of the Civil war, through which he served with great bravery, has been identified with the commercial interests of Appleton for many years and is now engaged in the grocery business. Mr. Nitschke was born December 13, 1841, at Parchwitz, Silesia, Germany, a son of Ernest and Hermine Nitschke, who came to the United States in 1843, in November of which year they settled in Milwaukee, and there Ernest Nitschke was engaged in shoemaking during the remainder of his life. He had a family of four children: August; Ernestine, who married Mr. C. Trautvetter, of Milwaukee, now a resident of Seattle, Washington; and Mary and William, who are deceased. August Nitschke received his education in the schools of Milwaukee, after which he found employment in the shipyard, and was working there at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war. On April 16, 1861, he enlisted in Company H, First Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and re-enlisted in the 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, August 15, 1862. He served with the last-named regiment during the remainder of the war, and was mustered out of the service at Milwaukee. Mr. Nitschke received a wound in the head at Resacca, the scar of which he still bears, and in addition to this bloody battle and numerous skirmishes. and minor engagements he participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. During his entire service he fought bravely and faithfully, and at the close of hostilities had a war record of which any man might well be proud. In 1865 Mr. Nitschke came to Appleton, and for a few years worked in a furniture store, then forming a partnership with William Peterson in a general store business, and after many years spent therein embarked in his present business, in which he has since continued. He has a well-ordered establishment, handles a full line of staple and fancy groceries, and commands his share of the business in his locality. Mr. Nitschke was married June 18, 1868, to Mary Ostertag, of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and they have had a family of seven children, of whom three survive, namely: Oscar, residing in Appleton; and Olivia and Walter, living at home. The family is connected with the Catholic Church, and Mr. Nitschke is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and the Sons of Herman.

EDWARD G. DREISSEN, the proprietor of one of Kaukauna's leading meat markets, and a self-made business man, was born in Buchanan township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, October 20, 1876, and is a son of John and Mary (Tillman) Dreissen, natives of Holland. Mr. Dreissen's parents came to the United States in 1851, and, taking up wild land, engaged in farming. John Dreissen is now residing in Woodville township, his farm being located on the township line. He and his wife had a family of eleven children, of whom ten are now living. Edward G. Dreissen received a country school education, and in 1892 started to work in a butcher shop at Kaukauna, and during the following year opened an establishment of his own. He has continued in the same business to the present time, and now has a well-ordered establishment, catering to some of Kaukauna's best trade. On November 9, 1898, Mr. Dreissen was united in marriage with Miss Henrietta Wheaton, of Kaukauna, who died November 19, 1905, and on April 9, 1907, he married (second) Lucy King, of Hilbert, Wisconsin. Mr. Dreissen has four children: Everett, Quintem, Lozell and Margaret. He and Mrs. Dreissen are faithful members of the Holy Cross congregation of the Catholic Church, and he holds membership in the Knights of Columbus.

JOHN REGENFUSS, proprietor of Regenfuss Brewing Company, and one of the well known business men of Kaukauna, Wisconsin, was born in Washington county, Wisconsin, August 12, 1859, and is a son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Rossbach) Regenfuss, natives of Germany who came to the United States in 1843 and located near Milwaukee. Jacob Regenfuss was a farmer in the vicinity of Milwaukee during forty-five years, and is now living retired at the home of his son, John, in Kaukauna, where his wife died January 19, 1911. They had a family of fifteen children, of whom seven are now living. John Regenfuss had his early educational training in the schools of Milwaukee, and graduated from the Commercial College at that city, later attending the Brewing Academy. In 1879 he located in Appleton, and for seven years conducted the Northwestern House, then becoming connected with Walter Brothers Brewing Company, with which he was engaged eleven years. In 1906, Mr. Regenfuss came to Kaukauna and established himself in business as proprietor of Regenfuss Brewing Company, which he bought from Peter Helf. This company has a capacity of 8,000 barrels of beer annually, employs eight men, and has a building 40x80 feet, two stories in height and composed of brick. The beer produced is the well known "Standard" brand, which is handled all over Kaukauna and Appleton. Mr. Regenfuss was married in 1881, to Mary M. Heinz of Appleton, daughter of Lambert and Anna Heinz. Mr. Regenfuss' family consists of nine children, of whom one is deceased. They are members of Holy Cross Catholic Church, and Mr. Regenfuss is a member of the Catholic Order of Foresters and the Catholic Knights. While a resident of Menasha, Wisconsin, Mr. Regenfuss served one term as alderman, and later he was given the honor of having his name put before the convention for the office of sheriff of Outagamie county, but owing to political conditions at that time he was defeated by but six votes. Lambert Heinz and his wife Anna, the parents of Mrs. Regenfuss, were natives of Belgium. They came to Appleton in 1862, and were among the old settlers of that city.

CHARLES H. LAMPKE, a successful farmer of Greenville township, Outagamie county, residing on Appleton Rural Free Delivery Route No. 2, where he has a farm of forty acres, was born in Prussia, Germany, November 14, 1855, and is a son of John and Caroline (Peters) Lampke, natives of the Fatherland. The parents of Mr. Lampke came to the United States in 1870, settling in Greenville township, where John Lampke worked for others as a farm hand for four years and then purchased the present homestead, on which he continued to live until his death in 1897, his wife having passed away in 1890. Charles H. Lampke was one of a family of nine children, and he secured his education in the district schools of Greenville township, also attending school in the town of Menasha for one and one-half years and at Hortonville for one term. At the age of seventeen years he went to Menasha, where he began work as a farm hand, but after one and one-half years returned to Greenville township, but left again to go to Michigan, where for five years he was engaged in sailing the Great Lakes. From that time until he was twenty-eight years of age he was engaged in log driving on the river and in the pineries during the winter months, and he then returned to the old homestead, where he has since carried on general farming. His forty-acre property shows the effects of good management, and in addition to being known as a good, practical farmer, Mr. Lampke has some reputation as a judge of good horseflesh, his stock being of a very superior quality. He is a member of the Lutheran Church, and a Republican in politics, and since 1905 he has served as constable of Greenville township, he being the present incumbent of that position. Mr. Lampke was married July 21, 1890, to Reca Buman, who was born in Greenville township, February 10, 1864, daughter of Christ and Minnie (Bolnitz) Buman, natives of Germany, who came from Mecklenburg at an early day and settled on a farm in Clayton township, later moving to a property one-half mile east of the Lampke homestead. Here his death occurred in 1903, his wife having passed away some years before. Mr. and Mrs. Lampke have had five children, born as follows: Clara, March 15, 1891; Zena, September 18, 1892; Lillian, August 3, 1894; Mildred, December 22, 1898; and Bernice, October 16, 1901.

EMIL KRULL, who is engaged in extensive farming operations in section 31, Cicero township, is now manager of the old Krull homestead, which has been in the family possession for nearly forty years. Mr. Krull was born in Little Chute township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, February 1, 1867, and is a son of Christian and Sophia (Pries) Krull, natives of Mecklenburg, Germany, who were married in the Fatherland and there had two children, August, and one who died in infancy. The family came to the United States in 1861, locating first at Neenah for one or two years and going thence to Little Chute. In 1875 Mr. Krull brought his family to Cicero township and located on eighty acres of wild land in Cicero township, which at that time was nearly a virgin wilderness, there being no roads and but little clearing. Here he erected a log cabin, 18x20 feet, and a log stable, and began clearing the property, this being his home until his death, in 1896, at the age of seventy-one years. His widow survived him until 1904, and was seventy-two years old at the time of her demise. After his father's death, Henry Krull took charge of the home place, and further improved the property.His father had erected the uprights for a new house, and Mr. Krull has completed this fourteen-room structure, which is one of the finest farm homes in Cicero township. He also has a basement barn, 40x70 feet; and a granary, 18x20 feet. General farming and stock raising have demanded all of Mr. Krull's attention, and he has had little time to give to public matters, although he takes a public-spirited interest in local affairs, and is always ready to lend his influence to any movement which has for its object the betterment of his community. In 1899, Mr. Krull was married to Bertha Blake, .who was born April 8, 1878, daughter of the late William Blake, and they have had three children: Ervin, born March 31, 1900; Melvin, born January 23, 1904; and Clarence, born March 18, 1911.

CHARLES H. BUMAN, an esteemed citizen of Greenville township, Outagamie county, has been identified with her agricultural interests for the past ten or eleven years, and is now the owner of a fine farm of eighty-five acres. He was born in Clayton township, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, October 2, 1857, and is a son of Christ and Minnie (Bollnitz) Buman, natives of Mecklenburg, Germany, who came to the United States at an early day and were married in Outagamie county. Christ Buman, who was always a farmer by occupation, first became a landowner in Clayton township, then situated on the present farm of Charles H. Buman, on which he resided until his death about the year 1903, his wife having passed away some years before. Charles H. Buman received his education in the district schools of Greenville township, and until his marriage he resided on the home farm assisting his father. His present eighty-five-acre tract, which he purchased at the time of his marriage, is in a fine state of cultivation, and is operated by Mr. Buman as a general dairy and stock farm. He is known as an excellent agriculturist, and he also finds a ready market for his cattle and hogs in Appleton and the surrounding cities. He is a Republican in politics, and is a member of the Lutheran Church. On December 6, 1900, Mr. Buman was married to Carolina Schuldt, who was born in Clayton township, October 11, 1868, daughter of John and Sophia (Witt) Schuldt, natives of the Fatherland, who came to the United States in 1866 and settled on farming property in Ellington township and later in Greenville township, where Mr. Schuldt died about 1903. His widow, who survives him, makes her home with her son, John, in Greenville township. Mr. and Mrs. Schuldt had the following children: Mrs. Buman; Anna, the wife of Henry Buman, brother of Charles H., and also a farmer in Clayton township; Mary, who is deceased; Ida, the wife of Richard Kronberg, a resident of Clayton township; John, a farmer of Greenville township; and Frieda, who is single and resides at home. Mr. and Mrs. Buman had the following children: Albert, born December 17, 1901; Linda, born February 14, 1903, who died March 18, 1903; Ida, born February 14, 1904; Louis, born March 21, 1906; and Amanda, born October 28, 1908.

EMIL W. UECKER, who has a tract of eighty acres of well-improved land in section 12, is engaged in farming and stock raising, and is one of Cicero township's well-known citizens. He was born January 12, 1876, in Germany, and is a son of William and Wilhelmina (Kranke) Uecker, who came to the United States in 1882, with their three children: Albert, Amelia and Emil. William Uecker secured eighty acres of land in Cicero township, partly improved, on which he found a small frame house and a log barn. He improved this property, later adding eighty acres, and here erected a fine farm house, a 40x80 barn, with a basement under all, and later added another basement barn, 20x40 feet, and a granary 18x28 feet. He carried on general farming and stock raising until his retirement from active life in 1910, at which time he sold his property to his son, Albert. Emil W. Uecker was educated in the district schools of Cicero township, and remlained on the home farm with his father until 1905, at which time he took up his present place of eighty acres in section 12, where he has made numerous improvements, including a comfortable residence and substantial barn and outbuildings. He carries on operations along scientific lines, uses the most up-to-date machinery, and is considered one of the enterprising and progressive agriculturists of Cicero township. In 1898, Mr. Uecker was united in marriage with Miss Lizzie Dittman, who was born in Shawano county, Wisconsin, daughter of Herman Dittman, and they have had four children, namely: Elmer, Ernest, Edwin and Rheinholdt.

ALBERT BUBOLTZ, who is one of the leading agriculturists of Maple Creek township, has spent his life on the place which he is now operating, a tract of 222 acres situated in sections 16, 17 and 18. He was born on this property, June 16, 1868, a son of John and Fredericka Buboltz, natives of Germany, who were married in Waukesha county, Wisconsin. In 1853 they came to Outagamie county, purchasing forty acres of land in Maple Creek township, this forming the nucleus for the magnificent farm now owned by Albert Buboltz. John Buboltz had only his ax to start clearing his land with, but this served to cut down the trees to make the logs with which to build his house, and this accomplished, he began to clear his land from the wilderness, experiencing the usual trials and hardships of the Wisconsin pioneer. As time went on, he began to buy and clear more land, and added to his farming implements piece by piece, stocking his farm as he became financially able. In 1862 he enlisted in Company D, Twenty-first Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, with which he served until the close of the war, participating in all of the battles in which his regiment took part, with the exception of some months when he was confined in the famous Libby Prison. On being exchanged, he resumed his place in the ranks of his regiment, and continued to serve as a brave and faithful soldier until the close of hostilities. He died in September, 1901, at the age of sixty-nine years, and is buried in Maple Creek Cemetery, his funeral having been in charge of the Grand Army of the Republic, of which he was a popular and esteemed comrade. His widow still survives him, making her home with her son, Albert, and is now seventy-three years old. Two years prior to his death, John Buboltz turned the farm over to his son, Albert, who took up the interests of the other heirs and is now sole owner of the land. Mr. Buboltz's parents had six children, of whom Mary married Benjamin Marsh and lives in Waupaca county, having four children; Frederick, a farmer of Maple Creek township, is married and has four children; Gusta married Herman Brensicke of New London and has two children; Albert was the fourth in order of birth; Tena married Albert Stoehr and lives in Waupaca county, having five children; and George is married and lives in Waupaca county.

Albert Buboltz remained on the home farm and has never married. He has 100 acres of his farm in a high state of cultivation, and the whole farm is under fence, principally of barbed wire. In addition to a modern residence, he has two large barns and a number of outbuildings for the shelter of stock, grain and machinery, and the general air of prosperity found about the place makes it one of the finest farms in this part of the county. Mr. Buboltz carries on general farming and stock raising, marketing dairy products and hogs, while he feeds most of his hay and grain. He milks twenty cows the year around and is breeding to Holstein cattle, while his hogs are Chester White crossed with Poland China. He also has French Coach horses and is breeding to Percherons. In political matters Mr. Buboltz is a Republican, and for two terms he served as a member of the board of supervisors.

JOSEPH TENNIE, one of the highly respected citizens of Greenville township, Outagamie county, where he owns a well-improved farm, is a native of Westphalia, Prussia, Germany, where he was born February 6, 1844, and a son of Joseph and Frances (Sigman) Tennie, born at Lugde, Prussia, the former in 1808 and the latter in 1812. Mr. Tennie's parents, who were farming people, never came to the United States. Joseph Tennie received his education in the schools of his native country, and at the age of twenty-eight years he came to the United States, settling in Greenville, where he worked for others until his marriage, and at that time settled on the farm he now occupies, which he had purchased a short time previously. He now has an excellent tract of eighty acres in this farm and also owns seventy acres across the road, and he is ably assisted in his agricultural pursuits by his sons. Mr. Tennie and his family rank among the best and most respectable citizens of Greenville township, and it is such as he, with willing and progressive disposition, industrious habits and law-abiding principles, that have made the township what it is. The family is connected with the Roman Catholic Church at Greenville. On April 10, 1877, Mr. Tennie was married to Emma Lippert, who was born in Greenville township, May 19, 1858, daughter of George and Frances (Sonderleiter) Lippert, natives of Baden, Germany, and early settlers of Outagamie county, Wisconsin. Both died in Greenville township, where they owned a large tract of land and carried on farming. Mr. and Mrs. Tennie have had eight children: Mary, single and residing at home; Joseph, a resident of Greenville township, engaged in the Rural Free Delivery service; Agnes, in the convent at St. Francis, Sister Ermelinda; and Oscar, John, George, Dora and Helen, all of whom reside at home.

EDWIN S. PALMER, who has resided on his present farm for considerably over a half of a century, and is now numbered among the representative pioneer citizens of this section, has watched Greenville township grow from a wilderness infested with wild game and wilder Indians to a peaceful, civilized community, covered with thriving business centers and abundant, prosperous farms. Born April 19, 1827, in Jefferson county, New York, Mr. Palmer is a son of David and Margaret (McKunen) Palmer, the former a farmer of near Saratoga, New York, and the latter a native of New York City. They never left New York, but followed farming throughout their lives there. Edwin S. Palmer was one of a family of eight children, five of whom were sons, and after securing a district school education in his home neighborhood, followed farming until he was twenty years of age. Attracted by the Great Lakes, he secured employment at this time as a deck hand on the "Lespord," on Lake Ontario, plying between Toronto and points along the St. Lawrence River. For six years he followed the lakes, and by that time had risen to the position of first mate on the "Nichic," which he held for one season. In the meantime he had purchased a farm of timberland in section 6, Greenville township, for $320, and after his marriage, which occurred in 1854, he brought his wife to this section, their residence being made with Julius Perrott for a short time until their own new home could be completed. The timber on this property was very dense, but Mr. Palmer set to work with the rude implements he had at hand to clear his property, and soon had a small one-story dwelling built, and he continued to cultivate this property until 1863, in the spring of which year he moved to section 6 and settled on his present farm, and during the years that followed, in addition to cultivating this property he did a great deal of carpenter work throughout Greenville township, although he is now living retired, his sons operating his land. Mr. Palmer is vice-president of the Hortonville Fire Insurance Company. He is a Republican in politics, and from his first office, in 1855, when he was elected to the county board, he has held nearly every office in the township within the gift of his fellow townsmen. For more than fifty years he has been a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he has ever been prominent in church and charitable movements, serving in various offices in the congregation at Hortonville. On June 7, 1854, Mr. Palmer was married to Martha A. Lewis, born in Jefferson county, New York, October 23, 1831, daughter of Jacob Lewis, who was a Revolutionary War soldier, and who lived and died in the east. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer had the following children: Eva E., born September 24, 1857, who died March 26, 1862; Carrie O., born September 2, 1859, who married Edward Sommers, of Marshall county, Minnesota; Edward B., born January 27, 1864, residing on the homestead, who married Emma Talsman, a native of near Milwaukee; and Leigh C., born January 17, 1870, also residing on the homestead. Mrs. Palmer, the mother of the foregoing children, and a kindly Christian character, who was beloved by all who knew her, passed to her final rest October 27, 1909.

HERMAN F. LUECK, serving in his fourth year as chairman of the township of Hortonia, is one of the successful agriculturists of this section and is farming the old Steffen homestead. He is a son of Christian Lueck, who was born in Germany and came to the United States in 1867, settling in Fremont, Waupaca county. He brought with him his wife, Caroline, and five children. Mr. Lueck was a blacksmith by trade and followed that occupation for a few years, but eventually purchased land and became a well-known and prosperous farmer. His death occurred there in 1890, while his wife survived him ten years and died in Hortonia township. Herman Lueck received his education in the district schools of Fremont, and as a lad worked on the river in summer and in the woods during the winters. He was married in 1888 to Paulina Smith, daughter of William Smith, of Winnebago county, and settled down on the old homestead in Waupaca county, taking charge of the farm and operating it. He continued there for eleven years, when he bought his present home in Hortonia township, known as the old Steffen farm.

Mr. Lueck has greatly improved the buildings and has brought the land up to a much higher state of cultivation. He is very active in church matters, he and his wife belonging to the German Lutheran Church at Hortonville. He is a stanch Republican in his political views, and although he has been very busy with his private affairs he has still found time to serve his township as a public-spirited citizen. He is now in his fourth year as chairman of the township, and has served several years as school director, and while a resident of Waupaca county was town treasurer for five years and chairman for three years. Mr. and Mrs. Lueck have twelve children: Hetty, Alma, Elmer, Clara, Edna, Arnold, Leona, Frank, Henry, Selma, Gilbert and Marcella. All of the children are residing at home, with the exception of Hettie, who married Henry Kapeitskiz, of Hortonia township.

REVEREND CONRAD RIPP, pastor of St. Mary's Catholic Church of Welcome, Wisconsin, was born at New Franken, Brown county, Wisconsin, and is a son of Mathias and Elizabeth (Van Hatten) Ripp, natives of Trier, Rhineland, Germany, and Lorraine (then a province of France, but now of Germany), respectively. Mathias Ripp came to America in 1854, and his wife two years previously, and after their marriage they settled at Mohawk Hill, Lewis county, New York, in 1868 coming to Wisconsin and settling at Jacksonport, Door county, for one year. They then removed to New Franken, Brown county, and engaged in farming on 150 acres of land, where Mr. Ripp died May 6, 1904. His widow is still living on the farm with her oldest son, Antone. Rev. Conrad Ripp was the sixth of a family of eleven children, and he received his early education in the parochial schools of New Franken. He then spent five years at St. Lawrence College, Mt. Calvary, Fond du Lac county, and five years at St. Nicholas Seminary, Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria, after which he was appointed assistant to Rev. W. J. Fitzmaurice, of St. Mary's Church of Appleton, Wisconsin, where he remained for two years. He was then appointed pastor of St. Mary's Church of Black Creek township, with Shiocton as a mission, and after ten months there was given the pastorate of St. Mary's, at Welcome, with Helena as a mission, and is filling this appointment at the present time. He has been here since July 20, 1906. Father Ripp is a member of the Catholic Knights of Wisconsin, the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic Order of Foresters. In his political views he is independent.

JOHN LEININGER, who is a farmer and stock raiser in Outagamie county, Wisconsin, owning a well-improved farm in section 4, Osborn township, was born at Germantown, Wisconsin, December 25, 1852, and is a son of Junior and Kate Leininger. The mother died when he was small. The father was a native of Germany and when he came to America settled at Germantown and lived there some years, but later moved to Appleton, where he died. John Leininger had but meager educational opportunities in his youth and from boyhood worked hard. For eight or nine years he was employed at Appleton, and did teaming and lumbering on Wolf River. He was married in 1878 to Anna Williams, and in the same year came to Osborn township and settled on a tract of eighty acres of wild land, he and his wife living in the old shanty they found on the place. He immediately began the clearing of his land and in the course of time added seventy acres to his original purchase, it being partly improved. He has all of his land well improved, and his substantial buildings include a fine house and a basement barn with dimensions of 38x68 feet. Mr. Leininger has seen many hard times, but through his industry and perseverance has accomplished what a less courageous man could never have done. When he first settled here his preparations for farming were the purchase of an old team of horses (for which he paid $100, and one horse soon died) and fourteen chickens. He now has stock of all kinds and is one of the prosperous and contented farmers of this district. Seven children have been born to him and wife, namely: Peter, Mrs. Zobel, Frank, Edward, John, Agnes and Mamie, who married a Mr. Krohn.

FRANK KLARNER, a well-to-do, retired citizen of Cicero township, Outagamie county, who for many years was engaged in farming in section 32, to which locality he came as a pioneer, was born in Austria, in 1835, and is a son of Seaman and Marie (Haun) Klarner, who spent their lives in Germany, and were the parents of six children: Sebastian, Andrew, Anna, Elizabeth, Pamelia and Frank. Frank Klarner was the only one of his family to come to the United States. He was married in Germany to Theresa Schnabl, daughter of Peter and Marie (Dinger) Schnabl, the former of whom died in 1854, aged sixty-four years, leaving six children: Mandalin, Marmield, Catherine, Franz, Theresa and Anna. With his wife and two children, Sebastian and Margaret, Frank Klarner came to America in 1868, on a sailing vessel that took forty-six days to make the trip, and located first in Hortonville, where he resided until 1871. In that year, in company with his brother-in-law and his family, Mr. Klarner located on section 32, Cicero township, it being necessary for the little party to follow a trail, as such a thing as roads in this section were at that time unknown. The two families built a cabin, 12x24 feet, and as both Mr. Klarner and Mr. Schnabl had only one cow and one ox each, they were compelled to exchange their oxen in order to make a yoke. Later Mr. Klarner took enough time from his work of clearing the property for cultivation to build a log cabin, 16x24 feet, and a stable, 22x50 feet, and added another forty-acre tract to his property, and here until his retirement he was engaged actively in farming. He erected a good basement barn, 36x66 feet, with a cement floor; a hog barn, 18x36 feet, and a wagon shed, 20x30 feet, and now has a fine modern house, whose twelve rooms are fitted up with all modern conveniences. Mr. and Mrs. Klarner have had the following children: Sebastian, married Minnie Summer; Margaret, who married Joseph Fischer; Joseph, now managing the old homestead, who married Anna Krause, and has one child, Harold, born August 1, 1907; Anna, who married Peter Reiter; Bertha, who is the widow of Joseph Hassmann; Catherine, who married John Letter; Mary, who married Clarence Beeckler; Emma, who married Joseph F. Hassmann; and Lizzie, who married Joseph Dudek.

FRANKLIN H. BACHELLER, born May 1, 1847, in St. Lawrence county, New York, and now living on 100 acres in section 34, Deer Creek township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, is a son of Eason and Lucina (Gray) Bacheller, natives of New York who came to Wisconsin in 1851. They first settled in Fond du Lac county, but a few years later moved to Chilton, Calumet county, and a short time thereafter to Jefferson county, where Mrs. Bacheller died in September, 1875, aged fifty-eight years. Her husband passed away while visiting in Chilton, in December, 1885, aged seventy-eight years, and both are buried in the cemetery at Fort Atkinson, Jefferson county. Franklin H. Bacheller was the fourth of a family of six children, and always lived with his parents. He was married in November, 1868, to Miss Emma J. Dixon, daughter of John and Emma (Welton) Dixon, natives of England and Connecticut, respectively. They were married in New York and came to Wisconsin in 1848, settling in Chilton, Calumet county, where Mrs. Dixon died February 15, 1881, aged fifty-six years. Mr. Dixon then sold his farm and moved to Outagamie county, where his death occurred November 15, 1893, when he was sixty-three years old, and both he and his wife are buried in the Chilton Cemetery. Mr. Dixon enlisted for service in the Union army in 1863, becoming a member of Company B, Fourteenth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered out as a corporal, after participating in all the battles in which his regiment and company took part. He was a member of Starkweather Post, No. 51, of Welcome, and was also connected with the Masonic fraternity, being buried under the auspices of that order. Mrs. Bacheller was born September 8, 1848, and was the eldest of a family of four children. She and Mr. Bacheller had two children: Franklin J., who married Charlotte Rand, now lives with his father and has five children; and Mary A., who married Edward Roloff, lives in Marshfield, Wood county, and has three children. After his marriage, Mr. Bacheller lived in Jefferson county, working for his father until 1875, when he bought 160 acres in Deer Creek township, Outagamie county, of which he later sold sixty acres. He is one of the self-made men of this community, his possessions when he started on this place being his ax and a cow, but as he became financially able he added to his stock and equipment and built himself better and more commodious buildings. His first house and barn was located on one of the tracts which he sold and he was compelled to build another residence, which was destroyed by fire in 1885, at which time he erected his present home, which has been remodeled since that time. In 1894 he erected a barn, 36x100 feet. He has seventy acres under cultivation, all fenced with barbed wire, and has built a number of outbuildings to house his stock, grain, machinery and poultry in. General farming and stock raising have been his chief occupations, and he also markets dairy products, hogs and some grain. He has graded cattle and Poland China hogs. In politics Mr. Bacheller is a Republican, and he has served as clerk of the school board for several years. With his family he attends the Methodist Episcopal Church at Welcome.

WARREN JEPSON, who for thirty-six years was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Deer Creek township, Outagamie county, was one of the pioneers of this district, and during a long and useful career did much towards the building up and development of his community. Born February 27, 1833, in St. Lawrence county, New York, Mr. Jepson came to Wisconsin in the late '50s, locating in Fond du Lac, and after one year removed to Maple Creek township, where he bought eighty acres of land. He was married August 28, 1859, to Miss Lana E. Krake, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (Lepper) Krake, natives of New York State, of German ancestry. They left Herkimer county, New York, for Wisconsin in 1855, settling in Fond du Lac, where they remained for two years, and then came to Maple Creek township and purchased eighty acres of land, both spending the remaining years of their lives here. They are buried in Maple Creek Cemetery. Mrs. Jepson was the youngest of a family of six children, and was born November 5, 1841. Mrs. and Mrs. Jepson. had four children: Albert, who married Maggie Dempsey, and is now living in Outagamie county, has nine children; Frank, who married Edna Pelton, of Fond du Lac, who died leaving three children, and he married (second) Mary Calkins, by whom he had seven children, and is now living in Outagamie county; Nora E., who married Albert Raisler, of Appleton, had three daughters; and Edna, who died at the age of two years. Mrs. Jepson adopted another child, Jennie, when a year and six months old, and she married David Calkins and lives in Whittenberg, and had two children who died, later adopting a son. After marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Jepson moved on to a farm of eighty acres in Deer Creek township, upon which, in 1860, they built a log house, which was replaced in 1883 by a brick residence. Here they lived for thirty-six years. They moved to the property in the winter, and with a yoke of oxen, two cows and an ax, Mr. Jepson began clearing the land. In the following spring he secured a plow, a drag and a wagon, and as time passed by he added to his implements piece by piece as he was financially able, and in time developed an excellent property. There was a widow Johnson who lived on the adjoining property, who was the first white woman in this township, and who had a young man making his home with her who was an incorrigible. Mr. Jepson had lumber for building stored in a mill three miles north of his property, and the mill was fired at the instigation of the widow Johnson in revenge for some fancied wrong she had suffered at the hands of the owner in regard to some cattle. It was proved that the young man living with her had fired the property by direction of Mrs. Johnson, and she was sentenced to jail, where she died. Mr. Jepson lost his lumber, but later erected a brick house and barns, and continued to develop his eighty acres, which are now almost all under cultivation.

In November, 1894, he turned the property over to his son and built a residence in Welcome, where he lived in retirement until his death, November 15, 1899, and is buried in Maple Creek Cemetery. His widow, who still lives in the residence in Welcome, was the first white woman in Deer Creek township, with the exception of the widow Johnson above mentioned. In the spring of 1864 Mr. Jepson enlisted for service in the Civil War, becoming a member of Company A, Forty-second Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, with which organization he served until the close of the war, being assigned to guard duty at Cairo, Illinois. He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, which took a part in his funeral services. In politics Mr. Jepson was a Republican, and he served on the board of supervisors for some years and was also a member of the school board. He and his wife were earnest members of the Methodist Church.

MICHAEL F. CLARK, one of the prominent agriculturists of Deer Creek township, Outagamie county, who is cultivating a tract of seventy-two acres situated on sections 19 and 30, was born in Ireland, March 17, 1859, and is a son of Robert and Frances (Tierney) Clark. Mr. Clark's parents were married in Ireland and came to America about 1885, settling in Chicago, Illinois, where the mother died in the fall of 1909, at the age of sixty-five years, while her husband still resides there and is about seventy years old. Michael F. Clark was the eldest of a family of nine children. He came to America with his sister, his parents soon following and secured a position driving a meat wagon for his aunt, who was living in Chicago at that time, but about one year later entered the services of the Michigan Central Railroad; and for five years was employed in the freight house of that company. He then went to Linn county, Iowa, where he worked for wages on a farm, remaining there about two years and then returned to Chicago, where for six years he was employed by the Economy Furniture Company as a stove repairer. Later he was engaged with the William Hoyt Wholesale Grocery Company for six or seven years, at the end of which time he came to Deer Creek township to settle on the old homestead of his father-in-law, part of which he purchased and the other part inherited by his wife. He has since been engaged in general farming and stock raising and markets dairy products, hogs and some grain. On January 25, 1892, Mr. Clark was married to Miss Mary A. Murphy, who was born August 7, 1858, the eldest of the nine children born to Daniel and Joanna (Crowley) Murphy, natives of Ireland. Daniel Murphy came to America as a young man, and for a number of years was engaged in various occupations, being employed on railroads, canals and southern levees, until coming to Deer Creek township and purchasing a wild farm. Mrs. Murphy came to this country in girlhood, her parents first locating in New York and later removing to Horicon, Wisconsin, where she and Mr. Murphy were married, and where they resided for about six years. At this time there were still numerous wild animals to be found in this region, and Mrs. Clark tells of many exciting experiences of the early days, when it was necessary to build large bonfires to keep the wild beasts away from the little home, when the bears would come to the farm and steal the hogs, and when deer would flee at the approach of members of the family in the morning. Mr. and Mrs. Clark have had three children: Daniel R., attending St. Norbet's College, West DePere, Wisconsin; Francis J., who is living at home; and Robert, who died when two years, two months and twenty days old. Mr. and Mrs. Clark are members of the Catholic Order of Foresters of Chicago, and attend St. Mary's Catholic Church at Welcome. In politics, Mr. Clark is a Democrat, and he has served two terms as a member of the village board of trustees.

FREDERICK M. BUNGERT, an energetic and industrious farmer of Ellington township, who has his property, located on Hortonville Rural Route No. 22, in a high state of cultivation, has spent his entire life in Ellington township, and was born on the farm which he now operates, April 12, 1865. His father, Michael Bungert, was born in Luxemburg, Germany, and came to the United States when about twenty-two years of age, landing at New York City. His first employment in this country was at railroad construction work in Illinois, but he soon came to Wisconsin and became a farm hand, working by the month for farmers in Ellington township. He was thrifty and economical, and by about 1860 he was able to buy the present Bungert homestead, at that time a wilderness covered with heavy timber, but at the time of his retirement in 1895, when he moved to Appleton, he was the owner of one of the finest farms of its size in Ellington township, boasting of well-built farm buildings, well cultivated soil and the latest models of farming machinery. In 1861 Mr. Bungert was married to Hannah Munsert, who was born in Saxony, Germany, and came to the United States at the age of seven years with her parents. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bungert of whom seven are still living. Frederick M. Bungert was educated in the schools of Ellington township, and he has always lived on the home place, with the exception of one summer spent in the harvest fields of North Dakota. At the age of thirty years, he rented the farm from his father, and he has continued to operate it ever since, carrying on general farming and dairying. In May, 1895, Mr. Bungert was married to Miss Ella Peters, daughter of Frederick and Elenora Peters, who came from Germany and settled in Center township, Outagamie county, and four children have been born to this union: Grace, born April 29, 1896; Linda, born May 3, 1898; Roy, born February 23, 1900; and Alfred, born September 10, 1901. Mr. and Mrs. Bungert belong to the German Lutheran Church of Ellington.

JOHN HARDY, the owner of one of Ellington township's excellent tracts of farming land, is a representative agriculturist of this township. He is a son of Owen Hardy, who was born in 1813, in County Louth, Ireland, and came to the United States in 1842, settling first in Vermont, where he resided for seven years. He came to Outagamie county, Wisconsin, in 1849, settling in Ellington township, where he homesteaded 160 acres in the woods, the nearest postoffice at that time being at Green Bay, thirty miles northeast. Mr. Hardy experienced all of the hardships and privations incident to pioneer life, but eventually cleared up his farm and put it under cultivation, and he continued to operate here until his death, April 15, 1891. Mr. Hardy married Katherine Newcomb, in New York City, she having been born within one-half mile of Mr. Hardy's home in Ireland, and she died at the age of sixty-three years, October 23, 1878. John Hardy was one of three children, and was born August 10, 1851, the first white child born in Ellington township. He received some education in the district school of his neighborhood, but most of his learning was gained in the school of hard work, starting to do his full share of the labor on the farm as soon as he was old enough to reach the plow handles. In 1888 when his father's health failed, Mr. Hardy took over the management of the home place, and three years later, at his father's death he became owner of the property. On April 30, 1877, Mr. Hardy was married to Anne Ringrose, daughter of Morris Ringrose and his wife Anne, natives of Ireland who came to the United States and settled in Appleton, where both died, the father April 13, 1882, and the mother December 21, 1904. Mrs. Hardy was born October 10, 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Hardy have had twelve children: Katherine, John, Mary, Morris, James, Anne and Margaretta, twins, Nellie and Edward, also twins, Thomas, Genevieve and Frances. Mrs. Hardy is a member of the Catholic Church at Stephensville. For six years Mr. Hardy served as a member of the town school board of Ellington town.

WILLIAM BRUX, who, with his brother Alois is engaged in cultivating a farm in Ellington township, was born September 21, 1886, and has carried on agricultural pursuits in this section all of his life. Henry Brux, the father of William and Alois, was born in Germany, and came to the United States when he was twenty years of age, locating in Appleton, Wisconsin, with his parents, Peter and Catherine Brux. The family spent the first winter in Appleton, and Peter Brux then purchased land in Grand Chute township, where he was engaged in farming until within two years of his death when he retired and returned to Appleton. Henry Brux, who still resides on the old homestead, where he has spent his life since coming to Wisconsin, married Anna Hauf, of Ellington township, and they had twelve children, of whom five are still living, as follows: William, who was born as above; Alois, who was born March 7, 1888; Henry, born in 1892; Agnes, born in 1897; and Emma, born in 1889. William and Alois Brux attended school in their native locality, and were reared to farming. Their operations in this place have been along general farming lines and dairy work and have been uniformly successful. Both are members of the Catholic Church at Greenville, have been prominent in church, charitable and educational work, and have warmly supported all movements that have promised to be of benefit to the community.

GILBERT MAIN, a prominent retired citizen of Stephensville, Wisconsin, who for more than twenty years was identified with the agricultural interests of Ellington township, was born in LaFayette county, Wisconsin, November 22, 1847, and is a son of Benjamin and Clarinda (Spencer) Main, the former a native of Canada. Benjamin Main came from his native country to the United States in 1844, settling first in Illinois and two years later making his way to Wisconsin and settling in LaFayette county, from whence he moved in 1857 to Bovina township, Outagamie county, and there died at the age of fifty-seven years. His widow, who was a native of Vermont, survived him a number of years, passing away in Ellington township in 1894 when seventy-two years of age. Gilbert Main was one of six children born to his parents, and he received a district school education, going to work on the river as a log driver at the age of fourteen years, and after some years spent in that occupation became one of the most noted of old-time stage drivers, owning and operating, with his brother, Perkins Main, a line between Appleton and Shawano, via Stephensville and Shiocton. After his marriage he entered the livery business, in which he continued until 1882, and in that year purchased a farm in Ellington, which he operated until his retirement in 1902 when he removed to Stephensville. He has been a member of the Town board and school director for several years, and in political matters is a Prohibitionist. In 1873 he was married to Miss Jennie Burch, who was born in New York, April 26, 1853, daughter of Aura and Esther (Scott) Burch, natives of New York who came to Wisconsin in 1854, settling at Butte des Morts, near Oshkosh. In 1857 they came to Ellington township, where they lived on a farm until 1876, and in that year went to Appleton, but after two years returned to the country, settling a few miles from Appleton, where Mr. Burch died at the age of sixty-eight years in 1893. His widow was born in 1831. Mrs. Main is her parents' only child. She and Mr. Main have had three children, of whom one is deceased, Wilbur; the survivors being: Aura, who married Grace Cummins and has one child; and Florence, who married Frank Schwarz and has three children.

HENRY KNAPSTEIN, mayor of New London, Wisconsin, and one of the leading business men of this place for many years, is now retired from business activities. He is a native of Germany, born November 17, 1852, a. son of Mathias and Anna Marguerite (Kreutsberg) Knapstein. Mathias Knapstein was born in the Fatherland and came to the United States in 1854 bringing with him his wife and three children: Theodore, Anna and Henry, and on the voyage, which took 104 days to accomplish, another child, William, was born. Landing at New York City, the little band of emigrants made their way at once to Wisconsin, the father buying land in Greenville township, Outagamie county, on which fourteen acres had been cleared, and here the mother died March 13, 1893. Mr. Knapstein continued to reside on this property until 1893, when he came to New London and lived with his son Henry until his death, August 25, 1894. There were. five other children born to Mr. and Mrs. Knapstein after locating in Wisconsin: Peter, who died at the age of ten years; Elizabeth, who married Jacob Stoesher of Sherwood; Barbara, who married Michael Schaller; Margaret, who married Ferdinand Reitzner of Bear Creek; and Conrad, who died in 1911. Henry Knapstein received his education in the district schools of Greenville township, and worked on his father's farm until he was twenty-one years of age, at which time he came to New London and with his brother as a partner founded a brewery business, which, from a small beginning, had grown to be one of the large business houses of New London at the time of Mr. Knapstein's retirement in 1908. The business is still carried on by Theodore Knapstein. On January 27, 1880, Mr. Knapstein was married to Isabella Steffen, daughter of John Jacob and Anna Mary (Schommer) Steffen of Hortonville, and six children have been born to this union, namely: Josephine, Margaret, Anna Rose, Cecelia, Helen and Beatrice. In 1897 Mr. Knapstein was elected mayor of the city of New London, having served as alderman for three years before that time, and acted in the chief executive's seat for two years. Again in 1910 he was elected to that office on a non-partisan ticket. In addition he has been a member of the county board for eight years. He and his wife are consistent members of the Catholic Church at New London.

HENRY J. MORACK, one of the prominent farmer citizens of Liberty township, who is successfully operating the old Morack homestead, is a son of Julius Morack, a native of Germany who came to the United States in 1872, when twenty-eight years of age. He settled first in Maple Creek township, where for several years he was employed in working by the day, and then, in 1885, bought land on which he continued to reside until coming to live with his son Henry J. He was married in 1874, to Ernstine Graubock, a native of Germany, whose father never left the old country, and to this union there were born two sons: Henry and Frederick. Henry J. Morack was born May 6, 1876, in Maple Creek township, and received his education there and in the district schools of Deer Creek township. He worked on his father's farm until eighteen years of age, at which time he learned the trade of blacksmith in Hortonville, where he followed that occupation for two years. He then opened a shop of his own at Zittau, Wisconsin, where he remained two years and spent two and one-half years in Dale, where he bought a shop, but eventually closed this business and rented a farm in Liberty township. In 1900 he purchased his present farm, the old homestead of the Morack family, the owner of which was a second cousin of Julius Morack. In 1898 Mr. Morack was married to Lena Morack, daughter of John and Mary Morack, who came from Germany and settled on this farm, where Mrs. Henry J. Morack was born. Mr. and Mrs. Morack have two children: Lawrence and Sadie. They are members of the German Lutheran Church of Liberty township. Mr. Morack is one of the good, practical farmers of his section and his farm shows what excellent results may be attained by careful and intelligent management. His buildings are especially fine, and he-has just completed building a handsome new residence.

STEPHEN MEIDAM, a highly esteemed retired citizen of Appleton, now living retired at his residence No. 1089 Morrison street, was born in Holland, May 17, 1848, and is a son of John and Richa (VanSmallan) Meidam, natives of that country. The family came to the United States in 1851, settling first in New York, and in 1853 came to Appleton. John Meidam was a farmer and timber hewer, owning twenty acres of land which is all situated in the Sixth Ward, and the present residence of Stephen Meidam now stands upon a part of the old homestead. John Meidam died in 1867, his widow surviving until 1907, when she passed away at the age of eighty-two years. They were the parents of nine children, of whom five survive, as follows: Dennis, superintendent for the Riverside Association, Appleton; Mary, the wife of Peter Van Oyen, a farmer of Maine township; Miles, proprietor of the Roger grain house of Appleton; Henrietta, the wife of Cornelius Van Wyk, a farmer of Grand Chute township; and Stephen. Stephen Meidam attended the district schools of Grand Chute township and the public schools of Appleton, and at the age of eleven years began working in the old stove factory in Appleton, where he continued about three years. His next employment was in the hub and spoke works, and in August, 1864, he enlisted in Company E, Fifth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and served one year. At the battle of Petersburg he received a severe gun-shot wound in his left leg, which necessitated the amputation of that member above the knee, and he was confined to the hospital four months. He was mustered out of the service in September, 1865, at Washington, D.C., and immediately returned to Appleton. He secured whatever employment he could find, and notwithstanding his injury he readily found work at farming, railroad construction and hub and spoke making, and about 1880 he commenced gardening, selling his product in Appleton and being very successful in that line. In 1909 he retired from active life and sold all his property except one acre, on which his residence, built in 1905, now stands. Mr. Meidam's career is one which might well serve as an example for the youth of today, proving as it does that the man in whom there is the right spirit may succeed in life no matter what handicap he starts under. He has always been a hard and faithful worker, and he may now look back over a useful and well-spent life, secure in the knowledge that he has the honor and esteem of his fellow-townsmen as a brave soldier in time of war and a public-spirited citizen in time of peace. Mr. Meidam attends the Congregational Church, although he is not a member thereof. He is connected with George D. Eggleston Post, No. 133, Grand Army of the Republic, Appleton, and in politics is a Republican, his townsmen having elected him to various places of honor and trust, including that of alderman of the Sixth Ward and supervisor. Mr. Meidam was married September 14, 1872, to Julia Van Oyen, who was born in Erie county, New York, May 2, 1853, daughter of John J. and Antonia (Steenis) Van Oyen, natives of Holland who came to America in 1851. They located first in Erie county, New York, where Mr. Van Oyen was engaged in clearing timber. He first came to Appleton in 1853, where he first followed his trade of mason for a few years, and then purchased a farm in Grand Chute township. Later he moved to Buchanan township, and continued there until his death, caused by an accident, in 1874. Mrs. Van Oyen continued to live on the Buchanan township property until 1889 when she moved to Appleton and in that city spent the remainder of her life, her death occurring in 1908. They were the parents of eleven children, of whom eight are living: Julia; Peter, a farmer of Maine township; Anna, the wife of Fred Smith, a hotel proprietor of Verona, North Dakota; Jennie, the wife of Daniel Merenes, a retired citizen of Appleton; John, engaged in farming in Grand Chute township; Elizabeth, who married Fred Schmidt, janitor at the Court House, Appleton; Dennis, a paper maker of Appleton; and Margaret, the wife of Theodore Zeidler, a farmer of North Dakota. Mr. and Mrs. Meidam have had two children: John S., born October 6, 1874; and Henry M., born April 25, 1878. John S. Meidam, who is a carpenter in Appleton, was married (first) to Lena Rau, who died in 1901, leaving one daughter, Dorothy, born October 16, 1898, and he married (second) Edith Wilharm, by whom he has had one daughter, Marcella, born in November, 1910. Henry M. Meidam was married to Anna Van der Weist, and they have had two children: Julia, born October, 1904, who is deceased; and Stephen H., born November 25, 1906. Henry M. is a teamster and makes his home in Appleton.

CLARK E. SMITH, a highly esteemed citizen of Deer Creek township, who was for a long period of years engaged in agricultural pursuits, was born August 4, 1848, in St. Lawrence county, New York, a son of Darius and Mary L. (Rogers) Smith, natives of Vermont and New York, respectively, who were married in the latter State, where they spent their lives. Mr. Smith was the only child of his parents, and he began to work at the age of fourteen years. In 1865 he enlisted in Company A, 193rd Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, but never left the State with his regiment, as he was taken sick and for three weeks confined to the hospital. After the war he resumed working for wages in a sawmill, and in December, 1867, he was married to Miss Betsy A. Davis, born December 10, 1849, daughter of Stephen and Martha Davis, natives of New York, where they spent their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Smith had two children: Albert E., who died at the age of ten years; and Mary V., who married Julius Conrad, and now lives in Deer Creek township, having ten children. Mr. Smith came to Wisconsin in 1868 and bought forty acres of wild land in Maple Creek township, a wild, wooded tract, to clear which Mr. Smith had only his ax, shovel and hoe. He cut down trees, made logs and with the assistance of neighbors built a little log house and barn, and by giving two days of his work for each day he borrowed his neighbors' yoke of oxen, he managed to get his seed in and harvested. He continued in this way for five years, by which time he was able to get a team of oxen, and a wagon, plow and harrow, and thus being equipped to clear land he sold his forty acres and bought an eighty-acre tract in Deer Creek township, which he cleared and farmed until April, 1885. His wife died at this time and Mr. Smith sold the farm and went to Antigo, Wisconsin, where he worked at various occupations until 1896, at which time he came to live with his daughter. Mr. Smith is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, being a popular comrade of Starkweather Post, No. 51, of Welcome, of which he served as adjutant six years and one year as commander. He is a Republican in politics, having served four years as clerk of the school board, and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Welcome.

FREDERICK WILLIAM SCHROEDER, a progressive agriculturist of Greenville township, has seen his present farm practically cut out of the forest, his father having settled on the land when it was still virgin soil. Mr. Schroeder was born in Greenville township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, November 18, 1866, and is a son of Helmuth and Sophia (Parshun) Schroeder, natives of Mecklenburg, Germany, where the father was born December 15, 1820, and the mother November 25, 1825. Helmuth Schroeder came to the United States in 1850 and went direct to Milwaukee, where he was employed by others. One year later he was married in that city, and he then rented a small farm north of Milwaukee, near what now is Lentworm Station, but four years later sold that property and removed to Greenville township, settling on the farm now owned by Frederick W. Schroeder, then a stretch of timber land, upon which the only improvement made was a small shanty. Years of hard, unremitting labor followed, but at the time of his retirement, in 1893, Mr. Schroeder had the satisfaction of seeing a well cultivated farm where once had stood acres of trees. At the time of his retirement, Mr. Schroeder removed to Neenah, and there his death occurred November 6, 1905, his wife having passed away January 23, 1900. They were the parents of six children: Minnie, the wife of Fred Fligge, a retired insurance man of Marshall, Minnesota; Rachel, the wife of John Weinman, a well driller of Neenah; Lena, widow of Henry Marks, residing in Greenville township; Bertha, the wife of John Felton, a stock buyer of Appleton; Ella, wife of Will Felton, of Neenah, a farmer and quarry owner; and Frederick William. Frederick W. Schroeder attended district school No. 6 in Greenville township and also spent one year in the old Ryan High school at Appleton. His boyhood and youth were spent in assisting his father to clear and cultivate the home farm, which he has never left. In 1890 he took over the management of the home place and during the next three years rented it, and in 1893, when his father retired, be bought the property. Mr. Schroeder's specialty is dairy farming, and he keeps on an average of ten graded Guernsey cows. He is a member of the German Evangelical Church at Greenville, and in politics is an independent Republican, and has served as a member of the school board. On February 22, 1893, Mr. Schroeder was married to Caroline Nieland, who was born in Greenville township, May 7, 1868, daughter of John and Fredericka (Burr) Nieland, natives of Mecklenburg, Germany. Mr. Nieland was born September 15, 1834, and his wife two days later, and they were married in Greenville township. Mr. Nieland came to America in 1851 or 1852 and first settled in Manitowoc county, where he worked in sawmills. On coming to Greenville township he purchased a farm. In 1862, he enlisted in the Thirty-second Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, as a private of Company I, and he served to the close of the war, being in many hot-fought engagements and participating in Sherman's famous march to the sea. After his return to Greenville township, he purchased another farm, which he cleared and sold, and then purchased property in Dale township, where he resided until his retirement in 1897, at which time he removed to Appleton, and he now is living in that city, on Oneida street. His wife died November 4, 1909. They were the parents of seven children: Ernest and an infant, deceased; Caroline, Mrs. Schroeder; Henry, a laborer of Appleton; John, residing on a farm in Grand Chute township; Louis, a lock tender of Appleton; and Fred, who is a laborer in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder have also had seven children, born as follows: Erwin, July 4, 1893; Edwin, May 22, 1896; Laura, May 2, 1898; Esther, June 8, 1900; Milton, January 14, 1903; Willis, July 22, 1905; and Norma, April 11, 1911. Mr. Schroeder is a popular member of the Greenville Lodge, Modern Woodmen of America.

EDWARD JOHN JACK, who has been a life-long resident of Greenville township, where he now owns a farm of 100 acres located on the Hortonville and Appleton Road, was born on this property, October 16, 1856, and is a son of Hiram and Mary (Hunter) Jack. Hiram Jack was born in New Brunswick, Canada, November 6, 1820, and in early life worked at lumbering and in sawmills, later engaging in farming in his native place. He was there married to Mary Hunter, who was born in Scotland, May 24, 1820, and they settled on his farm, on which they resided until 1851 at which time he came to Wisconsin and settled two miles west of Hortonville. A few months later Mr. Jack returned to New Brunswick, where he bought a small farm, but after three years returned to Outagamie county, locating on the farm now occupied by Edward J. Jack in Greenville township, this being in 1854. This property, which then consisted of eighty acres of wild, uncleared land, Mr. Jack paid for at the rate of $2.50 per acre, and when he first brought his family here he found that the rude log cabin, which was the only building on the place, had no roof, and it being the month of November, he had to leave the family at a neighbor's until he could build one, as well as making a door and a window. He was very skilled with an ax, and in addition to doing all of his own work, was often engaged by his neighbors to make ox yokes. Mr. Jack was also the possessor of a very fine yoke of oxen of which he was extremely proud, being able to drive them without any of the yelling and whipping which is usually necessary in driving these animals. The remainder of his life was spent on this farm, and he became well known as a farmer and highly esteemed as a citizen, being elected to various township offices. His death occurred July 19, 1884, his widow surviving him until June 2, 1904, and they had a family of ten children: Rosanna and Janett, who are deceased; Matilda, wife of A. L. Murphy, secretary of the Farmers Home Insurance Company; Isabelle, single, residing with her sister in Ellington township; Elizabeth, the widow of Samuel Gilbert, residing in Ellington township; Marion, wife of H. C. Gowell, residing at Norrie, Wisconsin; Edward John, the first to be born in Wisconsin; Emma, the widow of H. T. Hardacker, of Ellington township; Minetta, the wife of F. N. Playmann, a contractor and builder of Stevens Point, Wisconsin; and Anna, the wife of F. A. Grant, a farmer of Grand Chute township. Hiram Jack and his wife were members of the Congregational Church, and he was prominently identified with the Grange. Edward John Jack attended school in school district No. 4, Greenville township, and was reared on the home farm, of which he took charge at the time of his father's death. He has increased the size of the farm to 100 acres, and has made many improvements on the property and buildings, the handsome residence being completed in 1905. He carries on operations on general lines and devoted his whole time to his land. Mr. Jack is a member of the Congregational Church, and in political matters he is a Republican, having served on the school board, although he has never been an aspirant for political honors. On September 15, 1885, Mr. Jack was married to Miss Elsie Mills, who was born in this township, February 14, 1866, daughter of Frank and Jane (Tompkins) Mills, natives of New York, the former born June 30, 1832, and the latter February 3, 1840. Mrs. Jack's parents were married in Outagamie county, whence the father came in 1850, locating in Hortonia township, where for some time he was engaged in driving stage from New London to Shawano, and also engaged in clearing land, taking his pay in flour. Later he bought a farm in Hortonia township, where he resided about four years, selling this property to buy a farm in Greenville township, on which he resided until 1896, and then sold out and moved to Hortonville, where he and Mrs. Mills still reside. They have had six children: Carrie, the wife of A. F. Reidout, a druggist of Hortonville; Elsie; Grace, the wife of John Sommers, a farmer and cement worker of Ellington township; James, a farmer of Green Valley, Shawano county; Wallace, deceased, a former resident of Shawano; and Frank, a cheese maker of Green valley. Mr. and Mrs. Jack have had six children: Harry Hiram, born November 11, 1886, who married Anna Weise, and is engaged in farming in Ellington township; Lisle Francis, born June 4, 1891, who died November 14th of that year; Roland Morton, born February 19, 1894; Milo Stanley, born September 12, 1896; Leta Lorette, born August 10, 1900; and Marie Ione, born June 18, 1905.

AUGUST W. FLUNKER, a well known member of the farming community of Greenville township, where he has a tract of 160 acres, is also the owner of a valuable tract of 130 acres located in Liberty township. He is a native of Pomerania, Germany, born December 5, 1863, and his parents, August M. and Fredericka (Stark) Flunker are also natives of that place, the former being born November 29, 1821, and the latter December 18, 1828. The family emigrated to the United States in 1874, locating in Winchester township, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, but after some years spent in working for others in that section, August M. Flunker moved to Waupaca county and bought a farm. This he immediately deeded to a son, but he lived on the property during the balance of his life, his death occurring November 22, 1884, his widow surviving until September, 1888. They were the parents of seven children, of whom August W. was the fourth in order of birth. August W. Flunker attended school in Winchester township and at Fremont, Wisconsin, and when only thirteen years of age began working as a farm hand during the summers and attending school in the winter months, continuing thus until he had reached his sixteenth year. He then began to work steadily as a farm hand, but in a few months went to Neenah, where he became employed as a hotel clerk, an occupation which he followed for ten months, at the end of this time going to work in the woods. He was also employed in a sawmill and at other occupations until he had reached the age of twenty-two years, when he rented a farm nine miles from Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and continued there for three years, when he was married. Buying a residence property, and later a saloon and grocery store, he continued to reside in Oshkosh for six years, and in 1895 sold out and bought a property in Liberty township. This he rented in 1911 to his son-in-law and purchased 160 acres of fine farming land in Greenville township, which he is engaged in operating at the present time. Mr. Flunker is a member of the Lutheran Church. He has been prominent in political affairs, and while in Liberty township served as township clerk for three years, as chairman of the township for five years., and as school clerk, treasurer and deputy sheriff. He votes the Republican ticket. On October 16, 1888, Mr. Flunker was married to Emma Trott, who was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, January 22, 1870, daughter of Andrew and Caroline (Meilahn) Trott, the former born in Bavaria in 1835, and the latter in Pomerania, Germany, November 7, 1841. Mrs. Trott came to the United States with her parents in 1855 and settled in Washington county, and Andrew Trott emigrated to this country in 1863, locating in West Bend, that county. Mr. Trott, who was a carpenter and wagon maker by trade, worked in a trunk factory for some time, later followed his trades in Oshkosh, and eventually located on a farm, which he operated until the time of his retirement from active life, in 1894, when he returned to Oshkosh. His death occurred in that city ten years later, while his widow still survives and makes her home there. Six children were born to them, and of these Mrs. Flunker was the third. Mr. and Mrs. Flunker have had four children, namely: Amanda, born August 6, 1889, who married Arnold Handschke, of the city of New London, Liberty township; Ella, born June 23, 1891, who married Clarence Kempf, a resident of Deer Creek township, Outagamie county; George, born February 24, 1893; and Esther, born April 28, 1895, both residing with their parents. Mr. Flunker is also caring for his wife's sister's child, Harold Neubert, born November 23, 1895, whose mother and father died in March, 1905. Mr. Flunker is not a legally appointed guardian, but has been caring for the lad by his father's request.

ADOLF LOCHSCHMIDT, who is now serving in his fourteenth year as township chairman of Greenville township, is one of the representative citizens of Outagamie county, where he has been engaged as a farmer and merchant for many years, and is a veteran of the Civil War. He was born in Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, October 1, 1846, a son of Wenzel and Theresa (Bayer) Lochschimdt, natives of Bohemia who came to the United States in June, 1855, locating first at Baltimore, and making their way thence to St. Louis, Missouri, where the mother died. The father then went to New Orleans, with the intention of returning to the old country, but had to wait too long for his ship and decided to return to St. Louis, and from there went to Wisconsin, where he resided with his wife's brother for one and one-half years. His next location was in Terre Haute, Indiana, where he followed the cooper trade for sixteen years, and in 1873 came to Greenville township, buying twenty acres of land, although he continued to follow his trade. Later he went to Shawano county, and there his death occurred in April, 1884, one year after going there. Adolph Lochschimdt was the oldest of the four children of his parents, and he received his education in the public schools of Terre Haute, Indiana. On January 1, 1862, he enlisted in the Sixty-first Indiana Infantry as a drummer boy, this regiment later being consolidated with the Thirty-fifth, and after serving ten months in Company G, he enlisted in the Eighth Indiana Battery, which was later consolidated with the Fifth and Seventh and known as the Seventh, doing guard duty along the railroad between Chattanooga and Atlanta and was in the two days battle of Chicamauga. His entire service covered two years, three months and twenty days, and he was discharged July 20, 1865, after a brave and meritorious service. On his return to Terre Haute, he learned the trade of cooper, which he followed in that city until 1873, when he came to Greenville township, and was engaged in barrel making from timber taken from the twenty acres that his father had purchased. He resided on that farm for sixteen years, and in 1890 purchased seventy acres of land one-half miles north of Greenville Station, where he resided until 1907, then purchasing a small two-acre tract and retiring from active life. Later Mr. Lochschmidt bought the store at Bear Creek for his son, which he has operated since 1910 as a general mercantile establishment. During the past twelve years Mr. Lochschmidt has been treasurer of the Greenville Creamery. He has been prominent in Democratic politics, and served as chairman of the county board in 1904, as assessor seven terms, as clerk twice, and as a member of the school board, and for the past fourteen years he has been township chairman. He is a member of the Roman Catholic Church, belongs to the Catholic Knights and is vice-president of his branch of that order. On May 25, 1874, Mr. Lochschmidt was married to Fannie Steohr, who was born August 9, 1855, in Greenville township, daughter of Joseph and Anna (Fischer) Steohr, natives of Bohemia who were early settlers of Outagamie county, from whence, in 1876, they moved to Shawano county, and there spent the rest of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Lochschmidt have had fourteen children: Joseph, who resides in Langlade county, where he is engaged in farming; Henry, a milk dealer of Appleton; Matthew, a resident of Kaukauna; Michael, who is in the United States Marines, now stationed in Cuba; Paul, who is manager of the store at Bear Creek; Anton, residing at home; Anna and Martha, Catholic Sisters at St. Francis Convent; Mary, residing at home; Frances, deceased, who was also a Catholic Sister; Celia and Theresa, residing at home; and Johnnie and an infant, deceased.

GUSTAV MASCHINSKY, in whose death, August 23, 1909, Cicero township lost one of its good, practical farmers and esteemed citizens, was a native of Pomerania, Germany, where he was born March 1, 1862. He was a son of John and Johanna (Reetz) Maschinsky, who brought their children, Adeline, Gustav and Ferdinand, to the United States and settled for three years in Dodge county, Wisconsin, then removing to Cicero township, where Mr. Maschinsky died May 7, 1883, aged sixty-one years. His widow, who still survives, is making her home with her daughter-in-law, and has attained the advanced age of eighty-six years. Gustav Maschinsky remained at home with his parents, receiving his education in the district schools, and as his share of his father's estate received the forty acres in section 28 on which his widow and children now reside, to which he added forty acres more. This property was partly improved when he took up its management, and here he built a fine residence, a barn 38x76 feet and a substantial hog barn and corn crib. Mr. Maschinsky died in the faith of the Evangelical Church, of which he had been a consistent member through life. In 1884 he was married to Johanna Henning, daughter of John and Wilhelmina (Klockzeam) Henning, natives of Pomerania, Germany, who came to the United States in 1864, settling first in New York, and removing thence to Ellington township. After one year spent in the latter, they removed to Black Creek township, where both now reside, Mr. Henning being seventy-three years of age and his wife sixty-five. They had five children: Johanna, Maria, Augusta, William and Charles. To Mr. and Mrs. Maschinsky there were born four children, as follows: John, July 25, 1885; Wilhelmina, January 23, 1887; William, January 29, 1892, who died in 1902; and George, born February 22, 1901.

WILLIAM M. SCHULZE, the owner of a fine tract of farming land in Ellington township, and one of this section's most reliable citizens, is a son of Martin A. Schulze, and was born August 8, 1833, on his father's farm in Greenville township. Martin A. Schulze, a native of Germany, was born in 1832, and came to America in 1846, settling first in the city of Milwaukee, and later removing to Greenville township with his father, Daniel Schulze, who had bought land in that region. While very poor when they left the old country, they were also very industrious and saving, and soon accumulated property and became prominent citizens. Daniel Schulze died in 1879. Martin A. Schulze worked on his father's farm until his marriage, and when he had spare time from his duties at home he was employed by the farmers of the vicinity by the day. He was married in 1859 to Pauline Steinke, who was born in Germany in 1840 and came to the United States with her parents, early settlers of Dodge county, Wisconsin. William M. Schulze was one of a family of six children, and received his education in the district schools of his neighborhood. Until eighteen years of age he worked on his father's farm, and at that time went to learn the blacksmith's trade, which he followed ten years. By hard and industrious labor he managed to save enough during this time to purchase some land, which he improved, and later inherited some property in Ellington township, where he built a comfortable residence in 1896. In addition to carrying on general farming, Mr. Schulze has served for five years as salesman for Fassbender's cheese factory, and he is also acting as president of the Appleton dairy board. In 1896 he was married to Louise Ruscher, daughter of Herman and Caroline Ruscher, of Grand Chute township. She was born in that township, February 27, 1877, and has been the mother of two children: Laura, born May 28, 1897; and Victor, born April 6, 1900. Mr. and Mrs. Schulze are faithful members of the German Lutheran Church of Ellington township. In politics he is a Progressive Republican, and he has served as a member of the board for three years, and as school director for ten years. He has been active in his support of various movements for the benefit of his community, and is looked upon as a public-spirited citizen and excellent farmer.

DOUGLAS HODGINS, a successful agriculturist of Hortonia township, and a member of the County Board from the village of Hortonville, is a member of one of Canada's old and honored families. His grandfather, Thomas Hodgins, was born in Ireland, from whence he removed as a young man to Canada, settling in County Bruce, Ontario. He married Bridget McGuire, also a native of Ireland, and came to Wisconsin in 1864, with his family of five children, and settled in Hortonville, where he spent the remainder of his life in farming. David Hodgins, son of Thomas, was born December 31, 1850, in Canada, where he received his education and his first occupation was at the carpenter's trade, which he followed for four or five years. He then went into the woods for one winter and during the winter following was boss of the camp for W. H. Briggs. He then engaged in logging on his own account, and during the next fifteen or twenty years followed jobbing. In 1890, in company with Robert McMurdo, he bought the large stone quarry in Hortonia, and shortly thereafter bought his partner's interest. He, has been very successful in his operations, owning over 500 acres of land in the neighborhood and now lives on a farm just east of Hortonville, being still actively engaged in business. Mr. Hodgins has been prominently identified with public affairs during a long period, and has served as assemblyman, supervisor, and chairman of the county board two years and a member thereof for seven years. He married Elizabeth McMurdo, who was born in Hortonia township July 4, 1852, and they had two children: Douglas and Ellsworth. Douglas Hodgins received his education in the district schools and attended Ryan High school in Appleton, after which he taught a country school in Hortonia and Maine townships for three years. He then went to Hardwood, Michigan, where he was foreman in the cedar yards for eighteen months, and in 1902 was married and rented land from his father, moving to the farm which he now owns. Mr. Hodgins was married to Miss Dama Winslow, daughter of William L. Winslow, of Foster City, Michigan, and they have had four children: Carol, born March 20, 1903; Kenneth, born July 26, 1904; Marion, born March 10, 1906; and David, born February 18, 1908. Hr. Hodgins is an official of Hortonville Camp, Modern Woodmen of America, is at present supervisor of the village of Hortonville and has been a trustee of the village for the past four years. He is the present clerk of the village board of education. Mr. and Mrs.'Hodgins are consistent members of the Baptist Church at Hortonville.

BOSTIC H. AMES, one of Maine township's good, practical farmers and reliable citizens, whose forty-acre farm is located in section 10, is a native of Shelburne, New Hampshire, and was born May 28, 1849, a son of Asa H. and Eliza C. (Carlton) Ames, natives of that State. Asa H. Ames, who was a farmer by occupation, went to the California gold fields during the days of '51, and there his death occurred in 1852, his widow surviving him ten years. Bostic H. Ames was the fourth born of a family of five children, and he commenced to work for his board and clothes at the age of thirteen years, continuing thus for two years, when he began working for wages at farming, logging and river driving. He came to Wisconsin in 1878, and two years later purchased the place which he now operates, at which time there was but a small clearing and a small log house. He has since put all of his land in a high state of cultivation, and has fully equipped it with buildings, machinery and fencing, making one of the handsome and fertile farms of his township. He is engaged in general farming and stock raising, and makes a specialty of dairying. Mr. Ames is a member of the Fraternal Reserve Association. He is a Republican, and at one time or another has served in almost every township office, including those of treasurer, clerk, assessor, and chairman of the township, and for twenty-five years he has served as a justice of the peace. He and his family are members of the Union Congregational Church of Maine township, of which he is clerk. In 1878 Mr. Ames was married to Miss Anna Leeman, daughter of Charles S. Leeman, of Outagamie county. She was born February 10, 1858, and was the eldest child of eight born to her father's second marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Ames have been the parents of eight children, of whom two died in childhood, while the surviving members are: Grace, who married John H. Johnson, of Outagamie county, has four children; Alfred, who married Mattie Allen, is living in this county, and has two children; Edith, who married Ernst Shepard, is living in Oklahoma and has one child; Iva is single and living at home, as are also Winifred and Myron.

WILLARD G. MANSFIELD, cultivating eighty acres of fine farming land in Deer Creek township, Outagamie county, was born in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, August 10, 1854, and is a son of John L. and Mary A. (Rogers) Mansfield, natives of Canada and Wisconsin, respectively, who were married in Wisconsin. John L. Mansfield enlisted in Company H. Fourteenth Wisconsin Volunteers, in 1861, but before his company left for the front he was suddenly taken sick with measles, was removed to his home, and there died six days later, in Sheboygan county, Wisconsin. His widow died in 1882. Willard G. Mansfield was the eldest of a family of four children, and he remained on the home farm with his mother until twenty-three years of age, at which time he commenced farming on his own account on sixty acres of land situated near Green Bush, but after two years sold out and came to Outagamie county, buying new property which he has cultivated ever since. At that time there were about two acres cleared on which were a small log house and stable, and he owned a cow and a team of old horses, a wagon, plow, drag and cradle. With this crude equipment he began to clear his property, but as time went on and he began to receive returns for his labors, he bought modern machinery to assist him in his work, and he now has sixty-five acres under cultivation. In 1892 he built his modern frame house, 18x26 feet one way, 16x24 feet the other, with a kitchen 14x26 feet, containing fourteen rooms, and in 1904 he erected a barn 40x80 feet, in addition to having outbuildings for the shelter of his stock, grain, poultry and machinery. He feeds all of his hay and grain, but markets dairy products, hogs and cattle, milks an average of ten cows throughout the year and raises Poland-China hogs. He has been breeding French Coach horses, but now breeds to Percherons and Clydes. In 1877 Mr. Mansfield was married to Malissa Stewart, who was born in 1861 and died in January, 1896, daughter of Rev. William and Martha Stewart, natives of New York who came to Wisconsin in the early days and now live in Maple Creek township. Mr. Mansfield had six children by his first marriage: John L., who is married and living in Green Bush, Sheboygan county, has one child; Frank D., married and living in the village of Welcome, has one child; Harry, married and living in Deer Creek; Thomas and Edith, who are single and living at home; and Minnie, who lives with her aunt at Green Bush. In July, 1898, Mr. Mansfield was married to Elizabeth Hehman, born March 25, 1872, daughter of Garrett and Margaret (Ruckdashel) Hehman, natives of Holland and Germany respectively, who were married in Maple Creek township, where Mr. Hehman died in 1905, and where his widow still resides. Three children have been born to this union: Carrie, who died aged three years; Willard G. and Lawrence H. Mr. Mansfield is a member of the Equitable Fraternal Union. He is a Republican in political matters and has served two terms on the board of supervisors and fifteen years as clerk of the school board. With his family he attends the Christian Church.

MAX FORSTER, deceased. The late Max Forster, for many years successfully engaged in the bottling business in Appleton, was born in 1854 in Germany, and came to the United States in 1880. Locating at Appleton, he built a home at No. 802 Maple Grove street, at a time when there were three houses in that part of the city, and began working for Morgan and Passard, in a foundry. In 1888 he engaged in the bottling business in a small way, and he continued to operate these works during the remainder of his life, his death occurring September 27, 1901. He was very successful in his business undertakings, and left his family a comfortable competency. On September 20, 1880, Mr. Forster was united in marriage with Amelia Thurner, who was born in Germany, and who came to this country on the same boat that bore her husband. Eight children were born to this couple: Paul, who died at the age of twenty-six years; Mary, who married Frank Wardeck and resides in Appleton; Flora, who married D. Grieshaber of Appleton; Frank, living in Appleton; Theresa, who married Conrad Grieshaber and Vincent, John and Rosie, all of whom live with their mother. The family is connected with St. Joseph's Catholic Church, of which Mr. Forster was a faithful member.

JACOB JACK, a prominent and influential citizen of Greenville township, where he is engaged in agricultural pursuits, was born on the farm which he now occupies, August 31, 1856, and is a son of Joseph and Amy (Walton) Jack, the former born in the parish of Penfield, Province of New Brunswick, Canada, April 4, 1827, and the latter in Kings township, Canada, February 7, 1839. Joseph Jack in early life worked in the lumber camps and sawmills of his native vicinity, and for six years was engaged in farming in Canada, after which he came to Outagamie county, Wisconsin, and bought 120 acres of land on sections 7 and 8, Greenville township, from a Mr. Lewis. Here he settled down to agricultural pursuits, in which he was engaged up to the time of his death, in September, 1896. His widow continued to reside on this property until the spring of 1911 and then removed to Hortonville, where she now lives. They had three children; Jacob; Eliza, deceased, was the wife of C. Blackwood; and John, a retired citizen of Hortonville. Jacob Jack received his education in school district No. 4, Greenville township, and he has always resided on the homestead, which he purchased when thirty years old. He now has a well-improved and finely equipped property of eighty acres, which he operates in a general way, also doing some dairy farming and some stock raising for his own use. He was married March 23, 1889 to Flavilla Briggs, who was born at Hortonville, Wisconsin, March 5, 1868, daughter of Ashley and Osca (Whitman) Briggs, natives of the State of Maine, where the father was born October 23, 1843, and the mother June 11, 1841. In his early life Mr. Briggs worked in the lumber woods, and later became a farmer, being one of the early settlers of Outagamie county, whence he came about 1856. He served during the Civil War in an infantry regiment, with which he veteranized, and on his return from the war he settled in Hortonville, where he was married. For the ten years following, he worked in the lumber woods, and he then began farming, an occupation which he followed until his death, in 1891. His wife had died in 1870, leaving two children: Burdett, a farmer at Antigo, Wisconsin; and Mrs. Jack. Mr. Briggs was married again, but there were no children to this union. Mr. and Mrs. Jack have had two children: Howard, born February 7, 1891, a telegraph operator stationed at Ironwood, Wisconsin; and Neal, born November 12, 1904, at home. Although not a member, Mr. Jack attends the Protestant Church. He is a Republican in his political views, and belongs to the Modern Woodmen at Hortonville.

HUBBARD E. HILLS, who during his life was one of Dale township's leading agriculturists, is remembered as an exemplary citizen and one of the honored pioneers who took part in the development of this section of Outagamie county. Born April 4, 1834, in East Hartford, Connecticut, Mr. Hills was the eldest of a family of four children born to parents of English extraction, and he was married in the spring of 1854 to Miss Hannah C. Aiken, the third of the seven children of another English family and born September 21, 1837. After their marriage they came to Wisconsin, settling on eighty acres of wild land in Dale township, where Mr. Hills cut logs with his axe, his only implement at that time, and built a rude log house. He experienced all the privations and hardships that were endured by the pioneers, and, ably assisted by his wife, succeeded in clearing a home from the wilderness ancl putting 120 acres of a farm of 160 acres under cultivation. He had built a modern residence, barn and outbuildings, and had his land completely fenced, making one of the valuable properties of this part of Dale township. He was a Republican in his political views and served his county as register of deeds and as a member of the school board for a number of years. Mr. Hills died December 11, 1900, and was buried in the South Medina Cemetery. He and his wife had nine children, as follows: Ira W., of Dale township, is married and has two children; Charles, of Dale township, is married and has a family of ten; Howard S., of Dale township is single; Ida B., married M. Gallea and is now living in New London; Arthur I., living in Dalhart, Texas, is married and has two children; Ernest E., is single and living at home; Alfred R., living on the homestead, is married and has one child; Myron A., is single and living at home; and Rose E. married Guy Hopkins, of Medina, and has one child.

CHARLES ROGERS BLANSHAN, one of the leading agriculturists of Seymour township, Outagamie county, and the owner of Hillside Farm, an excellent tract of farming land situated on section 20, was born in Scott township, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin, September 30, 1863, and is a son of Jacob and Marie (Travis) Blanshan and a grandson of Mathew and Margaret Blanshan. Mathew Blanshan was a native of France who came to America at the time of the driving out of the Huguenots, and later became a messenger on the staff of General George Washington during the Revolutionary War, and history contains many accounts of his daring bravery and his many narrow escapes from death. His wife, Margaret, was a native of Holland, whose parents came to this country to better their condition, and she, like young Blanshan, grew up in New York, where they were married. Their children were: Daniel, Peter, Henry, Jacob and Catherine. Jacob Blanshan was born near the Hudson river, in Cayuga county, New York, and as a youth had the ambition to become a lawyer, but this desire was opposed by his parents, who were strict Presbyterians and could see no good in the profession, so he took up farming as a life occupation, and after his marriage came West, locating in Scott township, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin, May 12, 1848. This country was still a total wilderness, the first white families having come here the year previous, and he had to follow a blazed trail to locate the eighty acres which he had taken up. His household goods had miscarried, and for quite a long time the family cooking had to be done in a bake kettle, over an empty log, but the hardy spirit of the pioneer was there and undaunted he started to clear his land for the development of a farm. The wild animals were numerous in this section at that time, and the even wilder redmen had not left their haunts, and Mr. Blanshan's accurate use of a rifle was often tested to its limit when his wife would come fleeing to him in terror in the fields. Later three of his children, Henry, Peter and Reed, were claimed by the black diphtheria and his daughter, Anna, aged nineteen years passed away in the flower of young womanhood, but through it all this sturdy settler continued to assist in the development of the new country, and eventually, after twenty-six years spent on the property had a fine farm. At the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commissioned captain of a company, but the sickness of his daughter prevented his being mustered into the service, although he did valiant work in helping the families of those who had left for the front. A strong Republican in politics he served his township and county in nearly every office in the gift of the people, and finally was chosen to represent his district in the State Assembly in 1870, being compelled to refuse a second term on account of ill health. In 1874 Mr. Blanshan removed to Grand Junction, Iowa, where he located on 160 acres of land, but three years later sold this property, with the intention of returning to Wisconsin, but, changing his mind, purchased another Iowa property and there resided until his death, August 15, 1893, at the age of seventy-nine years, three months and four days. Mr. Blanshan was married to Marie Travis, who was born in Cayuga county, New York, a daughter of Albert Travis, a native of Germany who was killed when she was but eight years old, and she was reared in a family of Quakers by the name of Moser. She worked out as a girl and earned two shillings a week, also learning the art of weaving. Mrs. Blanshan had three sisters: Ida, Sophrona and Olive. To Mr. and Mrs. Blanshan there were born children as follows: Harriet, deceased, who married Jacob Multer; Mathew, who resides in Minnesota; Jane, who married Samuel Albright; David, residing at Grand Junction, Iowa; Elizabeth, who married Theodore McKay; Olive, who married J. R. Dorand; and Charles Rogers.

Charles Rogers Blanshan was nine years old when his parents moved to Iowa, and he was brought up to the life of a farmer. He continued at home with his parents until two years after his marriage, when he came to Seymour township and purchased his present farm, an excellent tract of eighty acres (to which he has added another twenty acres) which then was a stretch of stumpy land on which were a log barn and a small shack. It has taken years of hard labor for Mr. Blanshan to transform this apparently worthless property into a fine, productive farm, with its set of modern, substantial buildings, well kept lawns and flowing pastures, but the result has been worth the labor expended. Together with his son, who is his partner under the firm name of C. R. Blanshan & Son, he raises thoroughbred Oxforddown sheep, Poland-China hogs and Holstein cattle. He has been a member of the school board for three years, and he and his wife are stanch members of the Church. Mr. Blanshan is interested in Sunday school work and is president of the International Sunday School County Association.

On April 2, 1890, Mr. Blanshan was united in marriage with Flora Eliza Tubbs, daughter of Peter Tubbs. She was born July 17, 1871. Mr. and Mrs. Blanshan have had one child, a son, Peter Jacob, who is associated with his father.

JOHN HACKEL JR., who is engaged in extensive agricultural operations on section 3, in Seymour township, belongs to one of the fine old German families who left the Fatherland to come to this country and participate in the building up and development of Outagamie county, Wisconsin, which is rapidly taking its place as one of the rich agricultural sections of the country. Born in Germany, February 16, 1873, Mr. Hackel is a son of John and Kate (Neumeyer) Hackel, natives of that country, who came from Bavaria, to the United States in 1874 on a sailing vessel which took three weeks to cross the ocean, bringing with them their son John, then but one year old. Their other children, who were born in the United States, were: Joseph, who married Elizabeth Platten; Michael, who married Mary Keil; Kate and Mary, who are deceased; and Anna, Theresa, Elizabeth, Agnes and Tillie. On coming to this country, the parents of Mr. Hackel settled in Appleton, Wisconsin, for six or seven months, and then removed to section 3, Seymour township, Outagamie county, at a time when the land was a vast extent of tangled brush and heavy timberland. Mr. Hackel took up forty acres, on which he built a log house and log stable and began clearing the land to make a home for his family. The children were reared here, and as the boys grew old enough they began to do their share, John, Joseph and Michael helping their father to subdue seven forty-acre tracts. Each of the boys now has a fine home and a well-cultivated property, and all are now numbered among the good citizens and substantial farmers of their township. John Hackel, Jr., married Margaret Berner and lives on the homestead, his father now being seventy-three years of age and his mother sixty-seven. He carries on general farming and also raises fine livestock, making a specialty of Poland-China hogs, which he ships out for breeding purposes.

CARL GRAF, the owner of a fine property of ninety acres situated in Seymour township, has been carrying on agricultural operations on section 3 since coming to this country from Germany in 1889. Born October 4, 1858. Mr. Graf is a son of Gottlieb and Wilhelmina (Bauman) Graf, natives of Germany, where Mrs. Graf died, leaving four children: Carl, Wilhelmina, Augusta and Anna. After the death of his first wife, Gottlieb Graf was married to Johanna Ploetz, and four children were born to them in Germany: William, Elbert and two who died in infancy. In 1871 the family came to the United States, where Mr. and Mrs. Graf had six children: Eliza, Bertha, Herman, Emma, Martha and Ida. On locating in America, Gottlieb Graf came to Wisconsin and for four or five years followed the trade of mason in Osborn township, where he eventually took up eighty acres of wild land on section 3, claiming it from the wilderness and cultivating an excellent farm. Later he purchased and cleared three forty-acre tracts, erected good substantial farm buildings and continued to reside on the old homestead, engaged in agricultural pursuits, until his death, which occurred December 19, 1905, when he was seventy-two years old. Mrs. Graf, who survives her husband, is sixty-nine years old.

Carl Graf attended the schools of his native country, and as a youth learned the trade of blacksmith, which he followed in Germany until his marriage, in 1881, to Wilhelmina Brand, who was born May 1, 1853. They had two children, Hulda and Anna, and in 1889 the little family came to the United States, locating on a partly improved property of forty acres in Seymour township, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, where Mr. Graf built a little log cabin and barn. He cleared his original purchase and later added fifty acres more, and is now the possessor of one of the finely improved farms of Seymour township. He erected modern buildings, including a barn 40x80 feet, and on this property he has been engaged to the present time in general farming and stock raising, making a specialty of thoroughbred Duroc Jersey hogs. A stanch Republican in politics, Mr. Graf has served his township as supervisor for five years, and his religious connection is with the Lutheran Church.

ISAAC NEWTON STEWART, author and educator, a well known citizen of Appleton, Wisconsin, was born January 9, 1838, at Pompey, in Onondaga county, New York, and is a son of Robert A. and Ann Jeanette (Hibbard) Stewart. The father was born in Fulton county, New York, and was of Highland Scotch extraction, and the mother, who was born at Pompey, New York, was of Dutch stock that settled early in Connecticut. During his period of residence in New York, the father worked as a mason. In the summer of 1837, he came to Milwaukee, selected his future homestead and returned in the fall. In July, 1842, he came with his family to Pewaukee, Waukesha county. He was a man of honest purpose and of thoughtful character and through his sterling virtues secured the confidence of his fellow citizens. He was elected to town offices and served two terms as county supervisor, when three supervisors made up the county board. As may be inferred, when Isaac N. Stewart was a boy, he had but few of the opportunities which, in these days, are regarded in the light of necessities. The strict training on a pioneer farm, was, no doubt, the means of much development. He accepted work as a natural heritage and from never having had money, built up few plans where it would be a necessary factor, but the one thing he did long for was books. He was able to possess but a limited number of these and there were not many to borrow in his section at that time, but, through attendance during three winter terms of school he made enough progress to enable him to secure a school, and on December 7, 1853, he began his educational work. With success his ambition grew and it was a proud day for him when he was able to enter the University of Wisconsin, in March, 1859, although he realized that he would have more or less to work his way and board himself. He was graduated from this institution of learning in 1862, with the degree of Ph. B. In the fall of 1864 he enlisted for three years in Co. I, First Wisconsin Heavy Artillery and served until the close of the Civil War. The returning soldiers were all seeking openings for employment, which was hard to obtain; so he accepted the county superintendency and easily drifted into educational lines. During his college life he had thought to become a civil engineer but later concluded to buy a farm. This was just before the panic, when there came falling prices for everything, with high interest, hence this investment was a. failure. His subsequent life has been more or less given to educational work. He has taught in the High Schools of Waukesha, Oconomowoc, Manitowoc, Grand Rapids, Berlin, Port Washington, Appleton and Janesville. In 1871 he secured his life certificate by examination. He was a constant contributor to educational journals for years and has been many times honored by his fellow educators. He has served as president of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association, has been state examiner and Normal School Visitor. He served two terms as county superintendent of Waukesha county, was city superintendent of Appleton and county surveyor, afterward was chief clerk in the State Superintendent's office and for ten years was an editorial writer on the Milwaukee Journal. From 1870 until 1891 he was institute conductor, and in 1884 was candidate on the Democratic ticket for State Superintendent. In the same year the National Educational. Association gained him as a member, the High School principals electing him and paying the fee of $100. In 1889 Mr. Stewart issued his valuable Hand-Book for Teachers.

On December 24, 1868, Mr. Stewart was married (first) to Mary J. Dickerman, and (second) on October 16, 1898, to Nellie M. Wright. He was reared in the Episcopal Church. He is identified with the Masonic fraternity and the G. A. R. and at Waukesha was county lecturer for the Grange. In his political views he has always been in favor of Free Trade and usually votes with the Democratic party.

NUGENT BROTHERS, proprietors of Nugent Brothers Theatre, at Kaukauna, Wisconsin, are well known in the theatrical profession, not only as performers and owners, but as composers of popular songs. They established the first successful moving picture theater in the Fox River Valley, and their present playhouse was started by them in July, 1907, and has gained the popular fancy to such an extent that a successful future is assured. The Nugent boys are sons of Alfred A. and Eva A. (Sweet) Nugent, who came to Kaukauna in 1888 from Chilton, Wisconsin, Mr. Nugent having been born in Canada and his wife in Wisconsin. He died in 1903 in this city, where Mrs. Nugent still makes her home. The Nugent brothers, William A. and Earl H., received high school educations, and the former attended Northwestern University. Always talented musicians, they early entered the theatrical profession in that line, and soon became widely known as the composers of popular songs and music. They provide a popular entertainment at moderate prices, and their audiences are composed largely of women and children, nothing of a questionable nature being allowed or tolerated in their house. Both brothers are very popular personally in Kaukauna, while their very evident efforts to please the public are winning them new friends daily. William A. Nugent married Leona Briggs, of Appleton, and Earl H. Nugent's wife was formerly Henrietta Schlichting, of Kaukauna, and they have two children: Alfred H. and Benjamin Sweet. Earl is fraternally connected with the Eagles, while William is a member of the Elks, and both are adherents of the political principles advocated by the Democratic party.

JOHN HUNSICKER, one of the highly esteemed retired citizens of Dale, Wisconsin, who was for many years engaged in agricultural pursuits in Outagamie county, was born March 14, 1839, in Pennsylvania and is a son of John and Elizabeth (Kotz) Hunsicker. Mr. Hunsicker's parents were natives of Pennsylvania and spent their entire lives there. He was the third of their family of nine children and received his education in the schools of his native vicinity. At the age of twenty years he began working for wages as a carpenter, continuing thus for four years in Pennsylvania and two years in Ohio, and on July 4, 1863, came to Wisconsin, settling at once in Dale, from which place he enlisted, February 10, 1865, in Company A, Forty-seventh Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, with which organization he served until the close of the war. After his service to his country had been completed, Mr. Hunsicker returned to Dale, where he rented a farm for four years, and then purchased a farm in Dale township, on which he erected a frame house and log barn and lived there for four years. At the end of that time he traded his land for property in Oshkosh, but after residing in that city for seven months he traded it for forty acres more in Dale township, ten acres of which had been cleared. Here he built a frame house and log barn, and lived on that property for thirty-four years, in the meantime building a modern frame house and a basement barn 60x34 feet, and when he sold the land in 1901 it was all under a. high state of cultivation. In 1862 Mr. Hunsicker was married to Miss Elizabeth Degal, who was born in October, 1839, the fifth child of the family of seven born to Jacob F. and Mary Degal, natives of Wittenberg, Germany, who came to America and settled in Ohio, in which state Mr. and Mrs. Hunsicker were married. She died April 2, 1889, and is buried in Dale Cemetery, having been the mother of four children: Mary Elizabeth, who died at the age of three years; Edwin, who died when thirty-five years of age, leaving six children; Rosetta, who married Charles Tore, of Dale, has four children; and William, who died in childhood. Since his wife's death, Mr. Hunsicker has been living retired with his children, and during the last nine years has been living with his son Edwin's family. He is a popular member of Hortonville Post, Grand Army of the Republic, and is connected with the German Reformed Church. He is a Republican in politics, and has served as a member of the township board of supervisors and as treasurer of the school board.

WILLIAM L. SCHROEDER, who has been closely connected with the agricultural interests of Outagamie county throughout his entire career, is now operating an excellent farm situated on Appleton Rural Route No. 6, and has the reputation of being one of the practical and industrious agriculturists of the township of Freedom. William L. Schroeder was born February 27, 1873, in Center township, Outagamie county, on the farm of his father, Louis Schroeder, and received his education in the district schools of his neighborhood. He was reared to the life of a farmer and worked on his father's farm until the age of twenty-four years, when he began giving his services to the farmers of the locality. In 1898 he was married to Miss Ida Buss, who was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the daughter of Herman and Bertha Buss, farming people of Center township. One year after his marriage Mr. Schroeder purchased the farm which is now his home, and after a number of years of hard work and good management has brought his farm up to a high standard of excellence. He has remodeled and repaired the buildings, in addition to adding a number of other improvements, and operates his land with the latest and most highly improved machinery, finding a ready market for his large crops. During the past four years Mr. Schroeder has served Freedom township as a member of the school board. He and Mrs. Schroeder are consistent members of St. Peter's German Lutheran Church of Freedom, and have been the parents of two children: Edna, who was born March 20, 1900; and Elmer, born November 29, 1903.

JAMES H. DOUGLAS, one of the prominent and well-to-do business men of Hortonville, Wisconsin, was born April 23, 1842, on Ministers Island, New Brunswick, and comes of a family that traces its ancestry back to the Red Douglas Clan, owners of Douglas Castle, Scotland, the progenitor of the family being Mr. Douglas' grandfather, who came from Scotland and founded a Scottish colony in 1784. Mr. Douglas' mother, Isabella (Hunter) Douglas, was born in Dumfries, Scotland. James H. Douglas received a common school education and as a young man started to go to California, leaving New Brunswick for New York City. At the latter place, however, he heard that the steamer "North Star" had sunk in midocean, and he decided to take the overland route. By the time he had reached Chicago he found out that the Indians, under the direction of Mormons, were attacking the immigrant trains and massacring the immigrants, so he decided to come to Wisconsin, and subsequently located in Greenville township, in 1860, and purchased ninety-eight and three-quarters acres of land in section 6. In 1864 Mr. Douglas enlisted for service in Company D, Twenty-second Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, but owing to his physical development he was detailed to the secret service, under Captain Burns, to take troops to the front and break up the brokerage in men. He traveled 47,864 miles in less than nine months in the discharge of his duties, and was mustered out of the service, June 26, 1865, at Madison, Wisconsin, and returned to his wife, whom he had married only two hours before going to war. She bore the maiden name of Mary McMurdo, and died October 13, 1898, being buried in a marble vault in Hortonville Cemetery. The children born to this union were: Annabelle, born August 24, 1866, deceased; Agnes E., born August 18, 1867; William H., born June 1, to Mrs. Georgiana Boyd, daughter of David McFarland. Mr. 1869; Loretta M., born September 23, 1871; Maggie V., born April 24, 1879; John F., born September 19, 1881; and Robert E., deceased. On November 24, 1901, Mr. Douglas was married (second) to Mrs. Georgiana Boyd, daughter of David McFarland. Mr. Douglas is a member of the Baptist Church, of which he has served as trustee and Sunday School superintendent for the past twenty years. He is a stockholder in the Hortonville Gas Plant and for a long period was engaged in the lumber business under the firm name of Douglas & McMurdo. In political matters he is a Republican.

JOHN JOSEPH RENN, a well-to-do farmer of Buchanan township, Outagamie county, who owns and operates fifty acres of land in sections 24 and 25, is a native of Germany, born May 20, 1842, a son of Peter and Barbara (Anschau) Renn. The parents of Mr. Renn came to America in 1847, and shortly after their arrival made their way to Wisconsin, where they purchased twenty-six acres of land in Buchanan township. Mrs. Renn died here in 1880, aged seventy-five years, while her husband survived her until 1885 and was eighty years old at the time of his death. Both were buried in Holy Angels Cemetery. John Joseph Renn was the third of a family of ten children born to his father's second marriage, and he remained with his parents until he had reached the age of thirty-two years. He was married April 14, 1874, to Miss Anna Faust, born December 11, 1849, the fifth of the nine children born to John S. and Anna Mary (Rheinert) Faust, natives of Germany, who came to America about 1848 and settled near Milwaukee. Mr. Faust died in Menasha in 1865, and his widow survived him thirty years, passing away in the city of Appleton in 1895, when seventy-five years old. Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Renn: Peter, who is married and has one child, now living at Kaukauna; John, also living in Kauaukuna, the father of three children; Nicholas, who died aged twenty-five years; Stephen, single and living at Appleton; Catherine, who married George Swalbach, living in Calumet county, mother of two children, twins; Joseph and Henry, single and living at home, the former of whom is clerk of the Buchanan township school board; Hannah, who died aged six years; Charles, who was two years old when he died; and Alma R., single and living at home. After his marriage Mr. Renn went to the state of Nebraska, where he engaged in farming on rented property for two years, and then came back to Wisconsin and settled on land he inherited from his father, and which is now a part of his farm.

In 1895 he built a modern residence, 20x28, and wing, 16x24 feet, also a barn, granary and machinery sheds. He does general farming, markets his dairy products, hogs and cattle; keeps Holstein cattle and breeds draft horses. In politics Mr. Renn is a Democrat, but has never aspired to public office. With his family he is a consistent attendant of Holy Angels Church of Darboy.

FRANK HENRY ZAHRT, a practical agriculturist of Ellington township, has spent his entire life in this section of Outagamie county, and is the third member of his family to cultivate his present farm. Mr. Zahrt was born October 6, 1880, and is a son of John William and Mary (Seigel) Zahrt. His grandfather, John Zahrt, was born in 1815 in Prussia, where as a young man he learned the trade of cabinetmaker, but later purchased a small farm and resided thereon until coming to America in 1854, bringing with him his wife, Caroline (Kreiger) Zahrt and four children, two of whom died on the ocean, and after coming to this country two more children were born to them. He located in Dodge county, Wisconsin, for about eighteen months, then removing to Ellington township, where he bought eighty acres of land, but eventually sold this in 1868 and bought another property, which he sold some years later to his son, John William, and removed to Seymour township, purchasing forty acres of land. This he deeded to his son in 1885 and removed to Appleton, in which city his death occurred. John William Zahrt was born July 1, 1848, in Prussia. Germany, and received a good, practical education in the public schools, remaining on the home farm with his father until twenty-two years of age, when he commenced working for himself, and so continued for three years. He purchased this land from his father, and continued to cultivate it until 1907, when he retired and moved to Appleton, in 1909, that city being now his home. They had five children, all of whom are living, as follows: Charles, Sadie, Frank Henry, Clara and Lora. Frank Henry Zahrt was educated in the district schools of Ellington township and also took an agricultural course in the State University at Madison. He has always worked on his present farm, which he bought from his father in 1907. In March, 1909, Mr. Zahrt was married to Anna Mews, daughter of William Mews, of Greenville township, born in Maine township, Outagamie county, March 5, 1884, and to this union there has been born one child: Merton, born May 8, 1910. Mr. and Mrs. Zahrt are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Stephensville. He has always been a Republican in his political views, but like his father has never been an aspirant for public preferment, preferring to give his time and attention to his farm.

WILLIAM E. O'KEEFE, D. D. S., who is one of the well-known members of the dental profession of Outagamie county, is engaged in practice at Appleton, where he has been located since 1902. He was born in Appleton in 1878, and is a son of John and Mary (Catlin) O'Keefe, and a grandson of Thomas O'Keefe, a native of County Limerick, Ireland, who came to the United States in 1850, and to Appleton in 1865. The family has always been prominent in the business, public and professional life of this city since that time, and has also been well represented in military circles, John O'Keefe serving with distinction in the Civil War, as did also his brother, Daniel. Dr. William E. O'Keefe received his early education in the public and high schools of Appleton, and after leaving the latter institution entered the Chicago College of Dental Surgery, from which he was graduated with the degree of D. D. S. in 1902. He immediately returned to Appleton, where he established himself in practice, and here he has continued to follow his profession to the present time. His offices, located at No. 802 College avenue, are fitted with all the modern appliances used in his profession for the assistance of the doctor and the comfort of his patrons. He has kept in touch with the new discoveries in his profession by attending all clinics of note, subscription to all the leading dental journals and by membership in the Appleton Dental Association and Fox River Dental Society. He is also a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic Order of Foresters and Elks, and his religious affiliation is with St. Mary's Catholic Church of this city.

FRED M. WILCOX, a leading representative of the Outagamie county bar, ex-State Senator and prominent public official of Appleton, Wisconsin, was born July 17, 1870, near Marshalltown, Iowa, a son of E. I. and Mary E. (Moffatt) Wilcox. E. I. Wilcox was born in Camden, New York, and came to Wisconsin at an early date, later removing to Iowa, acting in the capacity of principal of many of the public schools of these states. He married Mary E. Moffatt, a native of Ogle county, Illinois, who was taken to Iowa by her parents as a girl, and there both Mr. and Mrs. Wilcox still reside. Fred M. Wilcox graduated from the Montour, Iowa, high school, and then entered the State University, being graduated from the law department in 1893, and was immediately admitted to the bar. He came to Wisconsin in 1894, and for six months worked in the post office at DePere with his cousin, C. G. Wilcox, and in November of the same year removed to Seymour, where he was engaged in a general practice of law until November, 1898, at which time he was elected to the office of district attorney, and immediately removed to Appleton. He served in that capacity for three terms, and in November, 1904, was elected State Senator, and served in that office during one four-year term. Mr. Wilcox is the father of the Municipal Court Act. He is still engaged in practice at Appleton, and is City Attorney for Kaukauna. On September 5, 1899, Mr. Wilcox was married to Theresa A. Brehmer, daughter of Charles and Henrietta Brehmer, of Seymour, Wisconsin, and one son, Frederick B., has been born to this union. Mr. Wilcox is a progressive Republican, and a stanch adherent of the principles of the party as interpreted by Senator LaFollette, of whom he is an intimate friend. Fraternally, he is connected with Waverly Lodge, No. 51, F. & A. M., and is past master of that order. His religious connection is with the Congregational Church, while Mrs. Wilcox is a Lutheran.

WILLIAM GEENEN, who for more than a quarter of a century has been secretary of the Farmers' Home Mutual Insurance Company, is vice-president of the Little Chute State Bank, a prosperous farmer and land holder of Buchanan township, and one of the leading men of his community. He was born in Buchanan township, Outagamie county, February 2, 1864; a son of John and Catherine (Willenson) Geenen, who were born in Holland and married in Freedom township, this county. After their marriage they removed to Buchanan township, where for eight years Mr. Geenen rented land and then bought the farm which is now occupied by his son William. Here John Geenen died in 1890, at the age of sixty-four years, his wife having passed away in 1874, when forty-five years old, and both were buried in the Little Chute Cemetery. William Geenen was the fourth of a family of eight children, and remained at home working for his father until his twenty-third year. He was married June 15, 1887, to Miss Susannah Schumacher, daughter of Peter and Mary (Pauly) Schumacher, natives of Germany. They were married in Wisconsin and settled on a farm in Kaukauna township, from whence they moved in 1872 to Buchanan township, and lived on a farm until retiring to Appleton, in which city Mr. Schumacher died in 1903, aged seventy-eight years, his wife passing away in 1900 when sixty-six years of age, and both were interred in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Appleton. Mrs Geenen was born February 7, 1864, and was the seventh born of her parents' nine children. Mr. and Mrs. Geenen also have had nine children, of whom two are deceased, the survivors being: Ida, Everard, Laura, Marie, William, Paul and Margaret. The second oldest child, Agnes, who lost her life in an accident on the Fox River, in June, 1911, was graduated from the Appleton High School in 1908, and the other child died in infancy. After his marriage, Mr. Geenen engaged in farming and gardening on his father's property, some of which he owned himself, and he also dealt to quite an extent in real estate, at one time owning as high as 145 acres. He started in the florist business in 1893 with a greenhouse of 800 square feet, which he has since increased to 27,000 square feet; operates an eighty-acre farm, which is all fenced with barbed wire, and markets hay and grain. He built his modern house in 1891, which has eight rooms. For eighteen years he was also engaged in the dairy business, and delivered milk in the village of Kimberly, but gave up his route in 1908. A Democrat in his political views, he was elected school clerk when he was only eighteen years of age, and served in that capacity continuously for twenty-six years. He has been secretary of the Farmers' Home Mutual Insurance Company since 1885, and vice-president of the Little Chute State Bank, of which he is also a stockholder. He is a member of St. John's Catholic Church of Little Chute, of which he was a trustee for eighteen years.

FERDINAND HARP, who has been identified with the agricultural interests of Buchanan township for a number of years, is now the owner of 115 acres of land in sections 26 and 27, and for the past nine years has served as road commissioner of district No. 2. He was born on the property which he is now operating, May 10, 1869, and is a son of William and Caroline (Grumall) Harp, natives of Germany. Mr. Harp's parents came to the United States in 1863, settling on forty acres of wild land which now forms a part of Ferdinand Harp's farm, where William Harp cut down trees, hewed logs and built a log house. He cleared and developed his land and resided on this property until his death, in January, 1911, when he had reached the age of eighty-two years. His wife died February 13, 1900, and both are buried in the Riverside Cemetery at Appleton. Ferdinand Harp was the fourth in order of birth of his parents' five children, and he received his education in the district schools. He always lived on the home farm and worked for his father until the latter's death, when he inherited a part of the homestead and bought the interests of the other heirs, adding seventy acres by purchase and making a total of 115 acres. He was married in 1897 to Miss Mittie Bement, daughter of Walter and Sarah (Weber) Bement, the former a native of Wisconsin and the latter of New York, and of English and Dutch descent, respectively. They were married in Wisconsin and settled in Appleton, where Mr. Bement, with Frank Clark, was the first to make sulphite pulp in the Fox River Valley. Mrs. Harp's paternal grandfather was the first city treasurer of Appleton. Her parents are both living in that city, her father being fifty-eight years old and her mother fifty-six, and they had a family of nine children, Mrs. Harp being the second in order of birth and born August 25, 1874. Mr. and Mrs. Harp have had two children: Gene and Vera. He has 100 acres under cultivation, all fenced with barbed and woven wire, and he does general farming and stock raising, marketing dairy products, hogs and cattle and some hay and grain. He milks eleven cows, keeping Short Horns and Durhams, and also breeds Yorkshire hogs and Belgian horses. His frame barn, 34x54 feet, was built in 1879, and another 30x104 feet, in 1883, the latter being equipped with cow stalls. His frame two-story residence consists of twelve rooms and was built in 1885, and he secures his water for all purposes from drilled wells. In politics Mr. Harp is a Republican and for nine years he has served as road commissioner of district No. 2. With his wife, he attends the Congregational Church.

HENRY JANSEN, who is engaged in extensive agricultural operations on a finely-cultivated tract of seventy-six acres situated in section 26, Buchanan township, is a native of the Province of Gelderland, Holland, and was born October 3, 1840, a son of Jacob and Christina Jansen. They came to America in 1850. settling in Kaukauna township, where they purchased forty acres of wild land, and Mr. Jansen cut the trees and hewed the logs for a little shanty. He had nothing but his ax to start work with, but as the years passed by he gradually added to his stock of equipments, and at the time of his death was the owner of about 100 acres of excellent land. Both he and his wife died on that farm and were buried in Little Chute Cemetery. Henry Jansen was the sixth of a family of fourteen children, and he remained at home until he had attained his majority, at which time he started working for wages, and so continued until he was twenty-seven. He then bought the place which he is now operating, at that time all wooded land with no improvemeents, and he now has it all under cultivation. He was married in 1867 to Miss Nellie Williams, of Outagamie county, daughter of John Williams, and she died in 1869, after eighteen months of married life, and is buried in Little Chute Cemetery. One child was born to this union and it died shortly after its mother's death. One year later Mr. Jansen was married to Miss Mary Ruvenrink, born August 26, 1838, and died April 4, 1911, whose parents spent their lives in Holland. Five children were born to this union, of whom two are still living: Mary, who married George Kamps, and now lives in Buchanan township, having nine children; and Henry, who is married and lives with his father, having one child. Mr. Jansen is a Democrat in politics and the religious connection of the family is with the Kimberly Catholic Church.

ALBERT F. KUMMROW, who is engaged in operating eighty acres of good farming land, is one of Greenville township's good, practical agriculturists and public-spirited citizens. He is a native of Outagamie county, having been born in Freedom township, May 4, 1864, a son of Herman and Johannah (Seehert) Kummrow. Herman Kummrow was born in Pomerania, Germany, March 18, 1830, and after serving his time in the German army came to the United States in 1855 and located in Milwaukee. He worked for some years for other people in that city, and was there married to Johannah Seehert, who was born in Pomerania, Germany, in August, 1831. They came to Outagamie county prior to the Civil War and located in Freedom township, where Mr. Kummrow purchased a farm, on which he was living at the time of his enlistment in the Union army. After his return from the war he resumed farming on this tract, but in the fall of 1892 he moved to Duluth, Minnesota, and resided for one year, then returning to Outagamie county and settling in Appleton, where he is now living retired on Pacific avenue. Mr. Kummrow was a prominent farmer and influential citizen of his township. He and his wife had seven children: Bertha, who married Rudolph Kruschke, of Duluth, Minnesota; Frank and Amelia, who are deceased; Albert F.; Berthold, residing on the old homestead in Freedom township; Paulina, who is deceased; and Mary, who married Mason Close, a resident of Duluth, Minnesota. Albert F. Kummrow attended school in Freedom township, and when thirteen years of age began working out as a farm hand, although he gave his wages to his father until he had attained his majority. He then worked for others until he was about twenty-seven years of age, when he bought the old homestead in partnership with his brother, and this connection continued for seven years, when Mr. Kummrow sold out to his brother and bought his present home of eighty acres in Greenville township, which he is operating in a general way, his land being very fertile. He is independent in politics and has never aspired to public office, being too much devoted to his farming interests. He and his family are connected with the Lutheran Church. On November 6, 1892, Mr. Kummrow was married to Miss Anna Remter, who was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, December 9, 1868, daughter of Herman and Wilhelmina (Knuth) Remter, the former born in Pomerania, Germany, December 12, 1838, and the latter at the same place, August 21, 1842. They came to the United States in 1867 and settled in Milwaukee, where Mr. Remter worked for four years for others, and then located in Buchanan township, Outagamie county, where he was engaged in farming until 1901 and in that year bought a residence in Kaukauna. He died in the latter place October 1, 1910, while his widow still survives him and lives there. They were the parents of eight children: Matilda, the wife of Fred Finke, of Buchanan township; Anna, who married Mr. Kummrow; Bertha, who is single and residing in Fond du Lac; Ida, the wife of Robert Schubring, of Kaukauna; Herman, of Freedom township; Lena, the wife of August Finke, of Fond du Lac; Emma, deceased; and Albert, residing on the old homestead near Kaukauna. Mr. and Mrs. Kummrow have had one child: Arthur Herman, born December 27, 1893.

EMIL VOECKS, a progressive young business man of Appleton, Wisconsin, who is a partner in the meat market establishment of Voecks Brothers, at No. 716 College avenue, is a son of Julius and Augusta (Gruenewaldt) Voecks, natives of Germany. The parents of Mr. Voecks came to the United States in 1869 and settled in Appleton, where Mr. Voecks' father was engaged in wagon making until his retirement. Julius and Augusta Voecks had the following children: Annie, who was born in 1869, and died at the age of twenty-eight years; Herman, born in 1871, who is engaged in the meat business with Emil, married Elizabeth Hegner; Emil, born in 1873, married (first) Cecile Klein, deceased, and married (second) Mrs. Bertha (Hagen) Hale, and has three children, one being deceased; and Emma and Minnie, who reside at home. Emil Voecks received a public school education, and as a young man learned the meat business, being located with Wenzel Neuzebauer from 1891 until 1894, in which year the latter sold out and a partnership was formed between Mr. Voecks and his brother, Herman, an association which has continued with much success to the present time. The firm enjoys a large patronage, which has been built up through honest business methods, fair dealing, and qualifications which are necessary to the successful operation of a meat business. Both the brothers vote independently, and like the other members of the family are connected with the Lutheran Church. Emil Voecks is a member of the Elks and the Eagles, and also holds membership in the Appleton Maennerchor and German Harmony Society.

REV. GUSTAVE DETTMANN, pastor of St. Peter's German Lutheran Church of Freedom, who during the twelve years that he has labored at this parish has won the love and affection of a large congregation, is a native of Germany, and was born December 19, 1867, a son of Christopher and Regina (Raszat) Dettmann, who never left the Fatherland. Rev. Dettmann received his education in his native country and first came to the United States in 1892, immediately settling at Brookside, Wisconsin, as pastor of the German Lutheran Church, in which capacity he acted for the two years following. He then went to Maple Creek township, a pastorate which he filled for five years, and in 1899 was sent to his present parish of St. Peter's in Freedom township. Rev. Dettmann has been earnest in his endeavors and faithful to the trust placed in him and his sincerity and lovable character have won him not only the love of his congregation, but the respect and esteem of all with whom he has come into contact. Rev. Dettmann was married in 1892 to Miss Lena Eisenloeffel, who was born in Germany in 1871, the estimable daughter of John and Caroline (Neukomm) Eisenloeffel, who, like her husband's parents, spent their entire lives in the old country. Four children have been born to Rev. and Mrs. Dettman, namely: Oscar, Emma, Gertrude and Margareta.

EDWARD FREDERICK SCHEIBE, who during a long and active career was prominently identified with the agricultural interests of Outagamie county, was the operator of a large farm in Freedom township, but during the past ten years has been living a retired life. Born in Germany April 1, 1833, Mr. Scheibe is a son of Godfrey and Elizabeth Scheibe, natives of the Fatherland, who came to the United States in 1854 with their children, first settling in Milwaukee, where they rented a farm and spent the remainder of their lives. Edward F. Scheibe came with his parents to America when twenty-one years old and began his career in the new country by working for twenty-five cents a day. In 1857 he married Sophia Florena, who was born in Wittenberg, Germany, and in 1871 they moved to Outagamie county, where Mr. Scheibe bought farming land and continued to operate it until his wife's death, in 1900, at which time he retired and sold his farm to his four sons. He and Mrs. Scheibe had a family of ten children, of whom seven are now living, namely: Reinhold, Herman, John, Robert, Gustave, Edward and Emma. Mr. Scheibe is a member of the German Lutheran Church of Freedom township, and has always taken an active part in church and charitable movements. For four years he was assessor of Freedom township, and also served satisfactorily for twenty-five years as a member of the school board. Although of foreign nativity he soon became imbued with a love for his adopted country, which led to his enlistment in the Civil War in 1864, serving until he was honorably discharged in 1865.

JOHN VAN ROY, a well-known and highly esteemed farmer of Buchanan township, Outagamie county, who for the past twenty years has been carrying on operations on his present farm of forty acres in sections 24 and 25, was born in Brown county, Wisconsin, October 6, 1852, and is a son of Mathias and Mary (Van Veghel) Van Roy, natives of Holland, who were married in Brown county. They spent about nine years on a farm in that county, and then went to Green Bay, where Mr. Van Roy was engaged in conducting a hotel until his first wife's death in 1871, when she was forty-three years old. Mr. Van Roy then was married to Mrs. Van der Zanden, who owned a farm of twenty-six acres in Buchanan township, on which his second wife died about four years later, and during the next nine years Mr. Van Roy lived with his son John. He was married for a third time to Mrs. Minnie Nooyen, of Appleton, and he died in 1905, aged eighty-six years, Mrs. Van Roy passing away three years later. John Van Roy was the eldest of the eight children born to his father's first marriage, and at the age of twenty years commenced working for wages, continuing thus for about two years. On April 22, 1875, he was married to Miss Clara Stein, daughter of Joseph and Susan (Hiddel) Stein, natives of Germany, who were married in that country and came to America about 1855, settling in Buchanan township. Mr. Stein was a shoemaker by trade and worked at that occupation until his death, although during his latter years he farmed to some extent in connection. He died in January, 1871, and his widow in 1899, and both are buried in the Darboy Cemetery. Mrs. Van Roy was the third of a family of four children, and was born February 28, 1855. Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Van Roy: Joseph, of Kimberly, whose wife died leaving him two children; Susan, who married John Renn, of Kaukauna, and has three children; Elizabeth, who married John Casper, of Appleton, and has three children; Augusta, who married John Wolf, of Calumet county, and has two children; John, who is married and living in Manitowoc; Michael, who is single and living in Milwaukee; Martin, who is single and living at home; Bert, who is single and living in Milwaukee; and Leo and Annie, who are single and living at home. Mr. Van Roy has twenty-two acres of his land under the plow and he carries on general farming and markets dairy products and some grain. He milks four cows. He has been living on this land since the spring of 1892, and in 1909 built his frame barn, 34x52 feet. His house has been remodeled twice, first in 1894 and again in 1907, and is now a modern, two-story veneered brick residence. His land is neatly fenced with barbed and woven wire and the entire' property presents a neat and pleasing appearance. In political matters Mr. Van Roy is a Democrat, was a member of the township board of supervisors for four years and clerk of the school board for twelve years, and during the past two terms has served as treasurer of the township, an office which he is at present filling with great satisfaction. With his family he attends the Darboy Catholic Church.

JOHN BRILL, who is now living retired on a fifteen-acre tract situated in section 23, Buchanan township, has for a number of years been prominently identified with the agricultural, public and religious interests of Outagamie county, and in every walk of life has proved himself a reliable and public-spirited citizen. Born March 26, 1844, in the Rhein Province, Germany, Mr. Brill is a son of Michael and Elizabeth (Eberhart) Brill, natives of Germany, who came to the United States in 1852 and settled in Granville township, Milwaukee county, Wisconsin, where they lived for eleven years. In 1863 they came to Outagamie county, purchasing 120 acres in section 23, where they erected a log house, for which Mr. Brill cut the trees and hewed the logs, which was later replaced by a two-story brick house in 1870, and here he resided until his death in January, 1897, at the age of eighty-two years, his wife having passed away in 1868, when fifty-two years of age, and both are buried in St. Mary's Cemetery at South Kaukauna. John Brill was the second born of ten children, and remained at home until twenty-seven years of age, at which time he commenced working for wages on the river and in the woods. He was married in 1871, to Miss Caroline Mueller, daughter of John Adam and Anna Marie (Jacobs) Mueller, natives of Bavaria, who were married in that country. They came to America only as visitors and returned to their native country, where they died. Mrs. Brill was the second of a family of four children, and was born December 10, 1849. Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Brill: Anna M., who married Peter Kauth, lives with her father and has one child; Della H., single and living at home; Elizabeth G., who married Nicholas M. Haupt, is living in South Kaukauna and has four children; Amalie Frances, who married Patrick E. Mullen and is living in Antigo, Wisconsin, and has two children; Agnes L., who married Otto M. Koch and resides in North Kaukauna and has one child; Veronica C., who married John J. Hyde, is now living in Green Bay and has two children; and William N., who died in infancy. After his marriage, Mr. Brill engaged in buying logs for Webster & Lawson, of Menasha, for two years, and then became employed with Renter Brothers' hub and spoke factory, where he continued a like period. He became a candidate for sheriff of Outagamie county on the Democratic ticket in the convention of 1874, where he was defeated by but one vote, and was appealed to by the Republicans to run on their ticket, but declined to do so. Notwithstanding, his name was placed on the Republican ticket, and he was elected by 1,800 majority, serving very acceptably for two years in that office. After leaving that office, he purchased 240 acres of solid timber land in section 23, Buchanan township, and set to work to clear and develop it, and here he has resided ever since, with the exception of two years, 1879 and 1880, when he again served as sheriff. He was defeated in the Democratic primaries and ran independently against the Republican, Democratic and Greenback candidates, and was elected by a majority of 120 votes. He has sold all of his land with the exception of fifteen acres, where he has a fine, two-story brick residence, which he built in 1885 and which consists of twelve rooms, equipped with all modern conveniences, including running hot and cold water. Mr. Brill has served as chairman of the township board of supervisors for fourteen years, chairman of the county board for six years, clerk of the school board for six years in succession and assessor for about five years, and in 1893 was a member of the General Assembly from the Second District of Outagamie county. He and his family are members of St. Mary's Catholic Church of South Kaukauna, and he is a member of the board of church trustees and has served a number of years as treasurer. He is also a member of the Catholic K. of W., Branch No. 64, of South Kaukauna, and has served eight years in succession as president of Branch No. 64 of South Kaukauna.

EMMET CORSON HALLOCK, D. D. S., an able dental practitioner of Kaukauna, Wisconsin, who has an extensive practice in that city, was born at Two Rivers, Wisconsin, October 30, 1877, and is a son of Emmet Gould and Lottie (Corson) Hallock, the former a native of Iowa and the latter of Maine. They were married in Iowa and came to Wisconsin in 1866, locating at Sheboygan and later coming to Kaukauna. Mr. Hallock was a railroad conductor and was in charge of one of the first trains to run through this city. He went to Two Rivers to reside after a short stay in Kaukauna, but eventually returned to this city, where he now is living retired. His wife, who is also living, has been the mother of eleven children, and of these four boys and two girls still survive. Emmet Corson Hallock received his early education in the schools of Kaukauna, after which he went to Chicago and entered the Chicago Dental College, graduating from that well-known dental institution in 1900. He then returned to Kaukauna, and has been in active practice here to the present time. Dr. Hallock was married March 2, 1907, to Genevieve Lindauer, of Kaukauna, and they have one son: Luther M. Mrs. Hallock is a member of the Congregational Church. He belongs to the state, county and national dental associations, and is also a member of the Chicago Dental College Alumni, in addition to being a popular member of the Masons and the Elks. He is well known in the dental profession in Outagamie county, and as a public-spirited citizen of Kaukauna has the esteem of his fellow townsmen.


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09-Aug-2004